An Annotated Outline

The Prospectus document includes a title page (page 1) followed by pages containing the required elements. Please use the Prospectus template on the Writing Center website.

Title Page

The recommended title length is 12 words or less to include the topic and the most critical keywords from the project. Double-space the title if it is more than one line of type, and center it under the word “Prospectus.” Please note that your doctoral project title will likely change as the project evolves, so allow yourself the flexibility to adapt your title, as necessary.

Include your name, your program (Doctor of Nursing Practice), and your Banner ID

number—double spaced and centered under the title.

Title

Start with “Prospectus” and a colon, and then include the title as it appears on the title page. Double-space if it is more than line of type, and center it at the top of the page.

Problem Statement

Provide a one- to two-paragraph statement that establishes the relevance of this problem:

1. Summarize preliminary, supporting evidence that provides justification that this problem is meaningful and relevant to the local setting as well as the broader field of nursing practice, citing key scholarly sources.

2. Explicitly state the gap in nursing practice or problem that will be your focus of this doctoral project

Practice-Focused Question(s)

List the guiding practice-focused question(s) that will address the identified nursing problem or gap in nursing practice.

Social Change

How this will impact social change? Does this project support the mission of Walden University to promote positive social change?

Context for the Doctoral Project

Briefly describe the intended setting for the doctoral project. Is it feasible to accomplish this project in the identified setting or context?

Page 4

Sources of Evidence

Include relevant evidence that supports the need to address the identified problem. Describe how the evidence justifies that this problem is important to the nursing profession.

Approach or Procedural Steps

Identify your possible approach/procedural steps, summarize possible strategies to obtain the data and resources needed to complete the doctoral project. Is this project from among the acceptable types listed on page 1?

Note: Evidence or data cannot be collected prior to approval of the doctoral project proposal.

Ethical

Will this project provide protection for human subjects? Are there potential ethical issues that may present problems for the completion of this project?

Alignment

Do the various aspects of the prospectus align overall? The problem should be supported by sources of evidence and should align with the practice-focused question, and the approach or procedural steps.

References

Use APA format for this prospectus. Include a minimum of five APA-formatted peer-reviewed references for all citations in the Doctoral Project Prospectus.

Medication adherence among Adult African Americans with hypertension in South Central US

1

15

“Prospectus”

Medication Adherence among Adult African Americans with hypertension in South Central US

Beatrice Ekechukwu

Nursing – DNP General

A00464476:

Medication adherence among Adult African Americans with hypertension in South Central US

Problem Statement

In the United States, it has been recognized that one of every four medical visits results from patients not following the advice they were given, and non-adherence constitutes 33% – 69% of medication-related hospital admissions each year (Scott & McClure, 2010). Similarly, annual deaths due to non-adherence to medication in the United States are estimated at 125,000, and non-adherence to medication also costs an estimated $100 billion annually in both direct and indirect healthcare costs (Scott, & McClure, 2010). These facts are substantiated by Elliot (2003) who identified that non-adherence to prescribed medication and insufficiently intensive treatment as the two challenging obstacles to control high blood pressure.

Existing literature cites non-adherence to prescribed medication and insufficiently intensive treatment (treatment that is not enough to remediate or control a condition) as the two challenging obstacles to controlling high blood pressure (Solomon et al. 2015). Even though African Americans (AAs) constitute about 12.8% of the entire United States population, AAs have the highest rate of hypertension (over 38%) compared to other ethnic groups (Ferdinand & Saunders, 2006; Flávio, 2011). According to Rigsby (2011), African Americans have an earlier age of onset of hypertension increased incidence and prevalence of hypertension; and high hypertension-related morbidity, including mortality rates. Based on the existing facts that AAs are susceptible to high incidences of hypertension due to their genetic heritage, low literacy, and socioeconomic status which are associated to medication adherence, it becomes imperative to develop a staff education manual. The staff education training module guided by the Walden University staff education manual will thus assist the facility to provide quality health education programs to help improve hypertension medication adherence among AAs. The DNP student will adopt the Walden staff education manual in developing training that includes medication adherence evidence-based materials. This approach will in turn expected to reduce the incidence of hypertension within the AA population. Staff education manuals which emphasize behavioral interventions and increased adherence to recommended pharmacological treatments and lifestyle changes have been proposed as intervention strategies (Gross, Anderson, Busby, Erith, & Panco 2013).

According to Healthy Paso Del Notre (2017), the percentage of Medicare beneficiaries who were treated for hypertension in 2015 for El Paso County, Texas was 53.7%. African Americans constitute 3.97% of the entire El Paso County (Healthy Paso Del Notre, 2017). El Paso County has the highest percentage (24%) of adults not taking hypertension medication as prescribed compared to Texas (22%) and the US (21%) respectively (City of El Paso Department of Public Health, 2013). The purpose of this capstone project is to utilize evidence-based clinical practice to develop a staff education manual which can properly guide staff of the facility to educate AA patients with hypertension. The objective is to cultivate the culture of adhering to their medications among the AAs and thereby increasing the goal of achieving improved hypertension medication adherence (HMA) among AA population.

Practice-Focused Question(s)

“Does the literature support the use of a staff education manual in developing education module that can improve medication adherence in AAs patients 21 to 85 years of age with uncontrolled hypertension (HTN, BP > 140/90)?”

“Is literacy a hindrance and associated to medication adherence among AA patients with hypertension”?

“Will patient hypertension medication adherence education provided through staff education training module and guided by Walden’s staff education manual be more effective in achieving intervention outcomes”?

“Does socioeconomic status affect hypertension medication adherence”?

Social Change

AAs are known to suffer a disproportionately large burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the United States compared to other ethnic groups (Bosworth et al. 2008). Based on this, it is indicated that half of the cardiovascular mortality disparity between AAs and other ethnic groups is directly attributable to hypertension (Bosworth et al. 2008). In this regard, medication nonadherence is of particular interest because it is recognized as a potentially modifiable factor that might be used to reduce this unusual disparity in hypertension control among AAs. Most evidence-based research literature of hypertension treatment cite nonadherence to prescribed medication and insufficiently intensive treatment as the two challenging obstacles to controlling high blood pressure (Elliott, 2003). According to Gross et al. (2013), evidence-based research literature emphasized that educational program that focused on behavioral interventions increased adherence to recommended pharmacological treatments and lifestyle changes.

The United States population has become cosmopolitan and diversified to the extent that any intervention to address a chronic medical issue, such as hypertension medication adherence, requires an individualized, culturally sensitive approach that aligns with the assessment of patients’ beliefs, knowledge, and health habits (Lakshman et al. 2014). The MAAAA project is designed to promote patients’ awareness of their adherence patterns, which can change their behavior and remain the key elements to changing patients’ behavior such as education, motivation, and measurement (Vrijens et al. 2017)

In the South Central United States, it has been recognized that one of every four medical visits results in patients not following the advice they were given, and nonadherence contributes between 33% and 69% of medication-related hospital admissions each year (Scott, & McClure, 2010). Similarly, annual deaths due to nonadherence to medication in the United States are estimated at 125,000 deaths, and nonadherence to medication also costs an estimated $100 billion annually in both direct and indirect healthcare costs (Scott, & McClure, 2010) and AAs particularly those in South Central United States bear huge chunk of these adverse impacts. The implication is that these factors impose a substantial burden on the healthcare system and, therefore, call for the identification of viable alternatives to our society’s heavy reliance on medications (Lauzière et al. 2013). Previous studies on the use of education programs for hypertension medication suggested that the implementation of educational programs included benefits due to the reduction of costs related to treatments . Also, Lauzière et al. (2013) reported the effects of educational programs on HTN that demonstrated the reduction in BP among participants from previous studies. The beauty of the staff education manual is that the facility will use a structured educational program that will be more efficient to increase patients’ knowledge on HTN medication adherence compared to the usual approaches of counseling at the bedside or in the office

Diligent implementation of patient-centered education proposed by the staff education manual for this project should enhance medication adherence to hypertension disease prevention and management programs in low-income populations such as the AAs and may be replicated to other vulnerable ethnic populations.

Context for the Doctoral Project

The MAAAs project will take place at a middle-sized, privately owned medical facility in the South-Central US, which has documented high incidences of hypertension especially among AAs and primarily attributed to medication non-adherence. The management of the facility sees the DNP project’s staff education manual as a window of opportunity in finding a long-term solution to hypertension medication adherence. Also, the facility sees increasing medication adherence across a population is vital to improving its potentials for achieving CMS Five-Star ratings,  and to the success of chronic care management programs. It recognizes that medication non-adherence, particularly among AA patients, causes poor clinical outcomes, which then increases the use of expensive and potentially avoidable healthcare services

The DNP student develops a staff education training module, which is guided by Walden University staff education manual that the facility can use in providing quality evidence-based hypertension medication adherence education to AA patients. The DNP student will train staffs of the facility to provide medication adherence patient education based on the Walden University staff education manual and encourages t he facility to use it as the platform for the patient education. The facility has the entire set of infrastructure and the required resources to implement the project but, its organizational structure and human resources wills are lacking. The beauty of staff education training module that is guided by the Walden staff education manual is that it will provide the facility the opportunity potentially evaluate implementation successes or failures of medication adherence. According to Brown et al. (2017), this approach is essential in examining changes that occur inside the facility, the target population, community, or system.

It is pertinent to note that the facility does not offer staff training on how to access and provide quality patient medication adherence education services to AA patients. Most importantly, the facility does have an incoheren t patient education platform, especially one sufficient enough to provide effective patient education services to AA patients . Furthermore, the staff is not trained in how to utilize evidence-based written documents, such as education handouts in providing programs to improve hypertension medication adherence.

Possible Sources of Evidence

Apart from the US territories with higher Medicare medication non-adherence, the greatest hypertension medication non-adherence in the US mainland occurs in the South Central United States (Ritchey et al. 2016). Higher prevalence of hypertension medication nonadherence in the South Central United States is substantiated with data provided by the US Census Bureau which stated n ational medication nonadherence rate in the United States as follows;, 28.9% for the South, 26.7% for the West, 24.1% for the Northeast, and 22.8% for the Midwest (Ritchey et al. 2016). Also, the same data stated that the South Central United States has a hypertension non-adherence rate of 30.8%, and is second to the highest in the south compared to the south-east and south-wes t (Ritchey et al. 2016). Also, evidence to date indicates that patient education is one of the most successful interventions to improve adherence and patient self-management of chronic diseases such as hypertension (Odusola et al. 2011). Medication adherence is a complex healthcare problem and described as the process by which patients take their medication as agreed upon with their prescriber (van der Laan et al. 2017). Social/economic, condition-, treatment- or health care system-related norms have been identified as causes of non-adherence by patients (van der Laan et al. 2017). Non-adherence to medication has become an alarming problem in the United States healthcare system causing an excess cost of over $170 billion annually (Bazargan et al. 2017). Despite medication nonadherence being a major cause of morbidity and mortality among the AA population, medication non-adherence among underserved minority populations receives inadequate attention (Bazargan et al. 2017).

It is equally important to note that all available evidence-based research literature points in the same direction are showing that nationally and statewide, the incidence of hypertension is higher in the AA patients compared to other ethnic groups (Ferdinand & Saunders, 2006; Flávio, 2011). According to Gross et al. (2013), evidence-based research literature emphasized that educational program that focused on behavioral interventions increase adherence to recommended pharmacological treatments and lifestyle changes. Also, empowering hypertensive patients using a health education strategy with the necessary information and skills required to maintain and improve their health has been attributed to yielding positive outcomes (Leung, Ho, Ho, Lee, & Mark, 2005). Evidence-based research also points out that provider-patient interaction using educational pamphlets will benefit patients with hypertension by enabling them to actively participate in their recovery and learn self-management skills they can use to improve their overall health. In this regard, evidence-based literature also postulates that patients who feel in control of their health are more compliant in making healthy lifestyle changes (Cleary et al. 2011).

On the other hand, Elliott (2003) identified other factors such as lack of a consistent health care provider, inadequate knowledge, or incorrect perceptions to be prevalent in cases of non-adherence. Moreover, beliefs about hypertension; lack of social support, transportation; or control over dietary choices and complexity of the treatment regimen such as inconvenient dosing, undesirable drug-related effects, and difficulty integrating therapeutic lifestyle changes as significant barriers to blood pressure control that many patients face (Elliott 2003). Based on the need to promote medication adherence, national organizations, such as the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA), emphasize the importance of medication adherence as a measure of the quality of health care system performance. Maclean et al. (2012), and Khanam et al. (2014) identified poor adherence as the main cause of failure to control hypertension, including poor adherence to antihypertensive treatment as a significant cardiovascular risk factor. This MAAAA project will, therefore, synthesize the information provided by evidence-based literature including Miller (2016 ) to provide evidence -based staff education training module that can help address the prevalence of hypertension medication adherence.

Approach or Procedural Steps

The MAAAA project is a staff education training module guided by Walden University staff education manual with an end product of brochure and intended to provide medication adherence patient education at an internal medicine facility in South Central United States . The staff education training module will contain a series of steps and approaches the facility can use in providing effective evidence-based patient education on hypertension medication adherence. The staff of the facility after being trained by the DNP student will use be able to apply the staff education training module provide p atient education programs to AAs to improve hypertension adherence. In this regard, the DNP student will plan and implement a six-week teaching session consisting of one-hour weekly power point presentations on how to use this app roach to provide evidence-based information to AA hypertension patients. This is very important especially as the staff education manual will address patients’ beliefs and concerns about the condition and treatment, identifies social cultural and individual barriers to adherence as well as enhances patients’ confidence in their ability to overcome those barriers (Odusola et al. 2011).

During the 14-minutes patient wait-time of the outpatient primary care visits, the staff of the facility can utilize and constitute these moments as teaching sessions. The step-by-step staff education training module will if properly used become a resource with improved confidence and ability in providing effective patient medication adherence education. Also, the staff education training teaching module will be characterized by concentrated, yet integrated, basic evidence-based medication adherence approach designed to integrate all stakeholders in collaborative efforts to achieve reasonable, measured outcomes.

Ethical

The DNP Student will obtain Walden University IRB approval and the facility’s institutional ethical approval as well as maintain the confidentiality of the project process. In this regard, the DNP student will seek IRB approval after the prospectus has been approved. As with any scholarly project in the healthcare arena, the MAAAA project will address ethics and human subjects’ protection appropriately and per IRB approval. If there is the need for the use of protected health information (PHI), the health insurance and accountability act (HIPPA) policy , as well as the facility’s policy, will be adhered to address the issue.

Alignment

It has been recognized that taking specific medications in treating a chronic issue such as hypertension requires motivating individuals/population to change their behavior such that their inner urge is activated to move or prompt them to action. This strategy influences medication behaviors as well as to overcome barriers to adhere to planned prescriptions (Resnick, Wehren, & Orwig, 2003). Factors identified to be influential in promoting individuals’ willingness to adhere to medications include; lack of knowledge about the benefits of the treatment, drugs side effects or unpleasant sensations, economic and social considerations, complexity of the regimen, poor patient-provider communications as well as providers’ beliefs in treatment effectiveness and motivation (Resnick, Wehren, & Orwig, 2003).

Implications of the proposed MAAAA outcomes are that the target population will be better informed and educated to be comply with the prescribed medication regimen. The accompanying change of attitudes and behaviors may then be influenced by perceived efficacy expectations including self-efficacy and the outcome expectations related to taking medications as well as outcome of such behaviors. In this regard, there will be individuals with strong self-efficacy and outcome expectations about medication adherence. Based on these, the effectiveness of the medications will be more motivated and will persist longer in correctly following the recommended medication treatment program. The hypertension medication adherence project will promote enhanced personal attributes such as emotions, perceived health status as well as confidence in the physicians. Also, the project will promote and enhance environmental factors such as routine, distractions, costs and social support, including task-related and behavioral factors such as medication aids, schedules, as well as knowledge about medications, medication delivery system and side effects.

References

Ajzen, I., & Daigle, J. (2001 ) Predicting hunting intentions and behavior: an application of the theory of planned behavior. Leisure Science23, 165-178.

Bazargan, M., Smith, J., Yazdanshenas, H., Movassaghi, M, Martins, D. & Orum, G. (2017) Non-adherence to medication regimens among older African-American adults. BMC Geriatrics17(163), 1-12

Branscum, P., Sharma, M., Wang, L. L., Wilson, B. & Rojas-Guyler, L. (2013). A process evaluation of a social cognitive theory–based childhood obesity prevention intervention: The comics for the health program. Health Promotion Practice14(2), 189-198

Brown, C. H., Curran, G., Palinkas, L. A., Aarons, G. A., Wells, K. B ., ………… Cruden, G. (2017) An overview of research and evaluation designs for dissemination and implementation. The Annual Review of Public Health, 38, 1-22

City of El Paso Department of Public Health (2013) Retrieved from https://www.elpasotexas.gov/~/media/files/coep/public%20health/community%20health%20assessment%20final%20report.ashx?la=en

Cleary, K. K., LaPjer, T. K. & Beadle, C. (2011) Exercise adherence issues, behavior change readiness, and self-motivation in hospitalized patients with coronary heart disease. Journal of Acute Care Physical Therapy2(2), 55-62

Elliot, W. J. (2003) The economic impact of hypertension. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension2(III), 3-12

Ferdinand, K. C., & Saunders, E. (2006). Hypertension-related morbidity and mortality in African Americans–why we need to do better. Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 21-30.

Girija, M. & Kokilavani, N. (2014) Effectiveness of structured teaching program on knowledge, attitude and practice among patients with hypertension. Asian Journal of Nursing Education & Research4(1), 136-139

Gross, B., Anderson, E. F., Busby, S., Erith, K. H. & Panco, C. E. (2013) Using culturally sensitive education to improve adherence with the anti-hypertension regimen. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 20 (2), 75-79

Healthy Paso Del Notre, (2017) Hypertension: Medicare P opulation, El Paso County. Retrieved from http://www.healthypasodelnorte.org/index.php?module=indicators&controller=index&action=view&indicatorId=2063&localeId=2645

Khanam, M. A., Lindeboom, W., Koehlmoos, T. L. P., Alam, D. S., Niessen, L. & Melton, A. H. (2014) Hypertension: a dherence to treatment in rural Bangladesh _ findings from a population-based study. Global Health Action7(25028), 1-8

Lakshman, R., Griffin, S., Hardeman, W., Schiff, A., Kinmonth, A. L. & Ong, K. K. (2014) Using the medical research council framework for the development and evaluation of complex interventions in a theory-based infant feeding intervention to prevent childhood obesity: The Baby Milk Intervention and Trial . Journal of Obesity, 1-10

Lawrence, D. B., Allison, W., Chen, J. C. & Demand, M. (2008) Improving medication adherence with a targeted, technology-driven disease management intervention. Disease Management, 11(3), 141-144

Leung, C. M., Ho, G. K., Ho, C. F., Lee, P. K., & Mark, L. S. (2005). Small-group hypertension health education programme: A process and outcome evaluation. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 631-639.

Lin, C., Neafsey, P. J. & Anderson, E. (2010) Advanced practice registered nurse usability testing of a tailored computer-mediated health communication program. Computers, Informatics, Nursing28(1), 32-41

Maclean, S., Berends, L., Hunter, B., Roberts, B. & Mugavin, J. (2012) Factors that enable and hinder the implementation of projects in the alcohol and other drug field. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health36(1), 1-5

McGinnis, B., Kauffman, Y., Olson, K. L., Witt, D. M. & Raebel, M. A. (2014) Interventions aimed at improving performance on medication adherence metrics. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy36, 20-25, DOI 10.1007/s11096-013-9872-y

Miller, T. A. (2016) Health literacy and adherence to medical treatment in chronic and acute illness: A meta-analysis. Patient Education and Counselling99, 1079-1086

NYU Libraries. (2017, October 9). Health (Nursing, Medicine, Allied Health): Search Strategies: Framing the question (PICO). Retrieved from NYU: http://guides.nyu.edu/c.php?g=276561&p=1847897

Odusola, A. O., Hendriks, M., Schultz, C., Stronks, K., Lange, J ., ….. Haafkens, J. (2011) Development and evaluation of a patient centered cardiovascular health education program for insured patients in rural Nigeria (QUICK-II). BMC Public Health11(171), 1-8

Pedwell, C. (2017) Habit and the politics of social change: A comparison of nudge theory and pragmatist philosophy. Body & Society, 23(4), 59-94. DOI: 10.1177/1357034X17734619

Peters, R. M., Aroian, K. J., & Flack, J. M. (2006). African American culture and hypertension prevention. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 831-854.

Rigsby, B. D. (2011) Hypertension improvement through healthy lifestyle modifications. Association of Black Nursing Faculty Journal, 41-43

Scott, A. B. & McClure, J. E. (2010) Engaging providers in medication adherence: A health plan case study. American Health Drug Benefits3(6), 372-380

Smedegaard, S., Christiansen, L. B., Lund-Cramer, P., Bredah, T. & Skovgaard, T. (2016) Improving the well-being of children and youths: A randomized multicomponent, school-based, physical activity intervention. BMC Public Health16(1127), 1-11

Solomon, A., Schoenthaler, A., Seixas, A., Ogedegbe, G., Jean-Lous, G., & Lai, D. (2015). Medication routines and adherence among hypertensive african americans. Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 668-672.

The American Heart Association (2014) Hispanics cut medication adherence gap after Medicare Part D launch. Retrieved from https://news.heart.org/hispanics-cut-medication-adherence-gap-after-medicare-part-d-launch/

Van Der Laan, D. M., Elder, P. J. M., Boons, C. C. L. M., Bosmans, J. E., Nijpels, G. & Hugtenburg, J. G. (2017). The (cost-)effectiveness of a patient-tailored intervention programme to enhance adherence to antihypertensive medication in community pharmacies: Study protocol of a randomised controlled trial. Trials18(29), 1-5

Williams, A. B., Burgess, J. D., Danvers, K., Malone, J., Winfield, S. D. & Saunders, L. (2005) Kitchen table wisdom: A Freirian approach to medication adherence. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 16 (1), 3-12

�Remove quotation marks

�Name your project here and show the abbreviation you will use for it in parentheses

�Omit and – how do you intend to show this? It reads like a research question.

�These all read like research questions, you cannot do research – and if you are doing staff education, none of these will be answered; your first question is adequate – but you don’t need quotation marks; and semi colon after HTN

�An educational

�You cannot use an abbreviation until you have defined it

�Commas to offset nonessential clause

�A huge chunk – but this isn’t a real scholarly term

�Medication or medication adherence?

�Need a citation for these studies

�Is this your social change statement? Need a stronger section to support social change

�Your abbreviation must be the same each time you use it, and relate to the project title

�No comma

�Have you defined CMS? If not, it must be defined before using an abbreviation

�No comma

�What is “it”?

�Which DNP student

�Future tense

�Will be – past tense as this is before the project

�Comma to finish offsetting the nonessential clause

�The staff – no s

�Won’t it be based on the module you developed? It is the module that is based on the manual, isn’t it?

�Check verb tense throughout this section

�Synthesis and clarity

�What entire set?

�what

�a staff education

�to potentially evaluate

�what approach?

�Incoherent?

�What is this section saying? Need clarification

�Comma to finish offsetting nonessential clause

�Reported would be a better verb here

�demonstrated – data doesn’t state

�clarity

�comma

�this doesn’t flow

�is underserved minority and AA population the same group?

�Sentence structure

�Plural

�Plural

�And not comma with only two elements

�No comma with two

�This has no purpose here

�An evidence based

�Isn’t your approach to develop a staff education module?

�Isn’t the project to develop the module?

�A brochure – your staff manual will have an end product of a brochure? What does this mean?

�Need clarity here

�Steps and approached? What do you mean

�Comma around nonessential clause

�Able to apply… provide – look at your sentence structure

�Only to AAs?

�Hypertension adherence or medication adherence?

�Which approach ?

�comma

�keep verbs in agreement

�comma

�how can a staff education manual enhance patient confidence?

�No s

�Constitute these moments?

�What moments?

�Comma around nonessential clause

�A resource doesn’t have confidence, so can’t have improved confidence or ability

�Need clarity here, I don’t know what you are saying

�APA and Walden say to use first person

�Need to define all abbreviations before using

�Reference needed

�No comma

�Look at your guideline and see what should be addressed in this section.

�Period after date throughout

�List first six then THREE dots … and final author

�Italics for ALL volume numbers

�No capital for population

�Capital after colon – I told you that the last time

�Only capitalize first word, proper nouns, and words following a colon in article titles. I told you that the last time

�List the first six authors and only use three dots (elipses)

�Italics

EVM Paper

Running head: EVM PAPER 1

EVM PAPER 1

EVM Paper

Mary Krenisky

Joe Scott

BUS 419

August 27, 2018

EVM Paper

In the current project, additional resources are added at in each work activity to complete the work packages in a quickly. The resources are added to these activities to reduce the slack that may originate if the project is accomplished based on planned resources only. An earned value analysis has to be performed to keep track of a project’s performance. This type of assessment gives a general review about the performance of a project along the chosen course. It has been noted that after adding more resources for the achievement of the ventures successfully, the slack time has been decreased and the work is going on faster than planned.

Earned value management is employed in different forms to determine the performance of the projects. By using this technique, the cost, schedule and, scope of the project are integrated that in turn aids the team of project administration to calculate and evaluate fulfillment and growth of the plan (Usmani, n.d.). The measurements of earned value are utilized by all managers of the projects. There are three main components of earned value management which are

• Actual cost

• Earned value

• Planned value

Planned value

It is the value of a task to be accomplished in a specified time. Overall planned value is known as ‘Budget at completion.’ Planned value also acts as a project’s baseline (Usmani, n.d.).

Actual cost

Actual cost denotes the quantity of money which is invested in the project until the present.

Earned value

Earned value is the worth of the task accomplished until the current time. Suppose, a project is terminated in the middle, the earned value will show the quality produced by the project till to date. The assessment of earned value management of the recent project indicates higher earned value and planned value. While the actual cost spent on the project is lower. The three cost’s that are planned value, actual cost and earned value are mixed to achieve the information about the completion of a project in a specific period.

Cost variance and schedule variance determine cost and schedule performances of the project. Following formula measures cost variance.

Cost variance = Earned value-actual cost (Cullen, 2016)

If cost variance is achieved in a negative value, it means that the project is higher than the budget.

Schedule variance is computed through a specific formula, i.e.

Schedule variance = Earned value/Planned value

If schedule variance is obtained in a negative value, it denotes the fact that the project is on the far side of the schedule (Cullen, 2016).

In the current project, negative cost variances are obtained for the months of January, February and, April which denotes that the activities are higher than the planned budget and require resources to be executed successfully. Negative schedule variances are obtained for January and June which shows that at these specific durations, the project is behind the set timetable. So, there is a need for additional resources to resolve the issue and complete the project fast.

References

Usmani, F. (n.d.). Earned Value Management (EVM) Analysis in Project Cost Management

Retrieved August 20, 2018, from https://pmstudycircle.com/2012/05/planned-value-pv-earned-value-ev-actual-cost-ac-analysis-in-project-cost-management-2/

Cullen, S.V. (2016). Earned value analysis. Retrieved August 21, 2018, from

https://www.wbdg.org/resources/earned-value-analysis

Project Closeout

Develop a network schedule for your project using either the arrow diagramming method or the precedence method. Also, your project schedule should illustrate float/slack for each activity.

Table 1.1. Project Tasks details

Activity Predecessor Anticipated Resources Added Resources Duration Early start date
A (Retirement and social security benefits) None $126 $50 One year 1/1/2019
B (Audit & risk evaluation) A $118 $25 11 months 2/1/2019
C (Equipment Maintenance) B $121 $30 8 months 2/1/2019
D (Training & Development) A, B $109 $25 One year 1/2/2019
E (Logistics, appraisals & rewards) D, C $118 $30 One year 1/2/2019

Precedence Diagramming Method:

ES Duration EF
Activity Legend
LS Float/slack LF

LS= Late start Dependency

LF= Late Finish

ES= Early start

EF= Early finish

F= Float/Slack

08/09/2019 1 year 7 months 03/04/2021
Activity B Audit & Risk Evaluation
12/19/2020 2 months

Resources=$25

03/04/2021

07/25/2019 11 months 06/22/2020
Activity C Equipment & Maintenance
08/1/2019 4 months

Resources=$30

12/22/2020

12/27/2019 8 months 08/05//2020
Activity A Retirement & social security

Resources =$50

03/05/2020 3 days 03/8/2020

07/31/2019 2 months 09/23/2019
Activity E Logistics, Appraisals & Rewards
08/10/2019 2 days

Resources=$30

08/12/2019

03/22/2019 1 month 04/09/2019
Activity D Training & Development
03/22/19 5 days

Resources =$25

03/28/2019

5 Activities with 6 dependencies

POWER, POLITICS, AND CULTURE Due Week 9: 240 points

ASSIGNMENT 3

POWER, POLITICS, AND CULTURE Due Week 9: 240 points

In business, power and politics greatly influence an organizational

culture in turn hinder organizational productivity. In your role as

consultant you observed power and politics influence on the corporate

culture.

INSTRUCTIONS Create a 5 to 7 page report that addresses the following:

1) Influence of Politics and Power

 Explain how politics and power-play may have influenced the

organization’s culture.

2) Sources of Power

 Explore the sources of power and describe how management

could use this influence to benefit your department and improve

organizational performance.

3) Leadership Behavior and Culture

 Make recommendations that support how the study of power

and politics could influence leadership behavior and improve

the organization’s culture.

4) Leadership Influence

 Discuss the importance and complexity of leadership behavior.

How does it influence organizational structure and

performance?

5) References and Citations

 Provide at least 2 quality resources.

 In-text citations are required when paraphrasing or quoting

another source.

6) Formatting and Writing Standards

 Formatting and writing standards are part of your grade. Align

your formatting to the Strayer Writing Standards.

*Grading for this assignment will be based on the following criteria and evaluation standards:

POINTS: 240 ASSIGNMENT 3: POWER, POLITICS, AND CULTURE

Criteria Exemplary 100% – A

Proficient 85% – B

Fair 75% – C

Unacceptable 0% – F

1. Influence of Politics and Power

Weight: 20%

Completely explains how politics and power-play may have influenced the organization’s culture. Accurately identifies the core issues and strongly connects them to the impact on culture. The explanation is well-supported by research.

Satisfactorily explains how politics and power-play may have influenced the organization’s culture. Identifies some core issues and connects them to the impact on the culture. The explanation uses research support.

Partially explains how politics and power-play may have influenced the organization’s culture. Identifies some issues but does not fully explore them or make a strong connection to their impact. Uses little research support.

Does not explain how politics and power-play may have influenced the organization’s culture.

2. Sources of Power

Weight: 20%

Completely identifies the sources of power and describes how management could use this influence to enhance organizational performance. Uses relevant key concepts and makes valid connections to enhanced performance that are well-supported by research.

Satisfactorily identifies the sources of power and describes how management could use this influence to enhance organizational performance. Most key concepts are accurately identified and there is a connection to enhanced performance with research support.

Partially identifies the sources of power and describes how management could use this influence to enhance organizational performance. Not all key concepts are identified and there is a loose connection to performance. There is little research support.

Does not identify the sources of power or describe how management could use this influence to enhance organizational performance. There is no reference to research.

3. Leadership Behavior and Culture Weight 25%

Provides excellent recommendations as to how the study of power and politics could influence leadership behavior and impact the organization’s culture. Recommendations are credible and relevant with a strong connection to the impact on culture backed by well-supported research.

Satisfactorily recommends how the study of power and politics could influence leadership behavior and impact the organization’s culture. Recommenda- tions are clear and mostly realistic; there is a connection to the impact on culture. Research support is evident.

Partially recommends how the study of power and politics could influence leadership behavior and impact the organization’s culture, but the recommendations are unclear or unrealistic. There is no clear connection to the impact on culture. There is little or no research support.

Does not recommend how the study of power and politics could influence leadership behavior and impact the organization’s culture. There is no reference to research.

4. Leadership Influence Weight 20%

Thoroughly discusses how the importance and complexity of leadership behavior influences organizational structure and performance. Relevant key concepts are presented with strong research support.

Satisfactorily discusses how the importance and complexity of leadership behavior influences organizational structure and performance. Most key concepts are presented with research support.

Partially discusses how the importance and complexity of leadership behavior influences organizational structure and performance. Some key concepts are missing and there is little or no research support.

Does not discuss how the importance and complexity of leadership behavior influences organizational structure and performance. There is no reference to research.

5. Reference minimums; Reference quality Weight 5%

Meets or exceeds number of required references; all references high quality choices.

Meets number of required references; some references may be poor quality choices.

Does not meet the required number of references; some references may be poor quality choices.

No references provided or all references poor quality choices.

6. Follows writing standards; Meets page minimums Weight 10%

Followed all writing standards. Met page minimums.

Followed most writing standards. Met page minimums.

Followed few writing standards.

May not have met page minimums.

Followed few to no writing standards. Did not meet page minimums.

Discussion 9 and Assignment: Leadership and Organizatinal

Communicating professionally and ethically is one of the essential skillsets we can teach you at Strayer. The following guidelines will ensure:

· Your writing is professional · You avoid plagiarizing others, which is essential to writing ethically · You give credit to others in your work

Visit Strayer’s Academic Integrity Center for more information.

Strayer University Writing Standards

1Strayer University Writing Standards

… If your assignment requires a title page, include the assignment title, your name, course title, your professor’s name, and the date of submission on a separate page.

… If your assignment does not require a title page, include the assignment title, your name, course title, your professor’s name, and the date of submission in the header of your document.

… Include page numbers.

… Use 1-inch margins.

… Use Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, or Calibri font style.

… Use 10, 11, or 12 point font size for the body of your text.

… Use either single or double spacing, according to assignment guidelines.

… See assignment guidelines for instructions to format tables/charts/graphs/ images.

… Use appropriate language and be concise.

… Write in active voice when possible. Find tips here.

… Use the point of view (first, second, or third person) required by the assignment guidelines.

… Use spelling and grammar check and proofread to help ensure your work is error free.

… Use credible sources to support your ideas/work. Find tips here.

… Cite your sources throughout your work when you borrow someone else’s words or ideas. Give credit to the authors.

… Add each cited source to the source list at the end of your assignment so that your reader can find and reference the original material. (See In-Text Citations section for more details.)

… Don’t forget to cite and add your textbook to the source list if you use it as a source.

… Include a source list when the assignment requires research or if you cite the textbook.

… Type “Sources” centered on the first line of the page.

… List the sources that you used in your assignment.

… Organize sources in a numbered list and in order of use throughout the paper. Use the original number when citing a source multiple times.

Writing Assignments

Title Your Work

Use Appropriate Formatting

Write Clearly

Cite Credible Sources

Build a Source List

Strayer University Writing Standards 2

Giving Credit to Authors and Sources When quoting or paraphrasing another source in your writing, you need to give credit by using an in-text citation. An in-text citation includes the author’s last name and the number of the source from the source list. Find tips here.

Option #1: Paraphrasing Rewording Source Information in Your Own Words

· Take the source information and rephrase it in your words. Be sure not to repeat the same words of the author.

· Add a number to the end of your source (which will tie to your source list).

· Remember, you cannot just replace the words of the original sentence.

 Examples ORIGINAL SOURCE

“Writing at a college level requires informed research.”

PARAPHRASING

As Harvey wrote, when writing a paper for higher education, it is critical to research and cite sources (1).

When writing a paper for higher education, it is imperative to research and cite sources (Harvey, 1).

Option #2: Quoting Citing another person’s work word for word

· Place quotation marks at the beginning and the end of the quoted information.

· Add a number to the end of your quote (which matches your source list).

· Do not quote more than one to two sentences (approximately 25 words) at a time.

· Do not start a sentence with a quotation. · Introduce and explain quotes within the context of your

paper.

 Examples ORIGINAL SOURCE

“Writing at a college level requires informed research.”

QUOTING

Harvey wrote in his book, “Writing at a college level requires informed research” (1).

Many authors agree, “Writing at a college level requires informed research” (Harvey, 1).

Strayer University Writing Standards 3

Source List The source list (which includes the sources that you used in your assignment) is a new page that you will add at the end of your paper. The list has two purposes: it gives credit to the authors that you use and gives your readers enough information to find the source without your help. Build your source list as you write.

Strayer University Writing Standards 4

· Type “Sources” at the top of a new page. · Include a numbered list of the sources you used in your paper. (the numbers

indicate the order in which you used them). A well-researched assignment has at least as many sources as pages.

1. Use the number one (1) for the first source used in the paper, the number two (2) for the second source, and so on.

2. Use the same number for a source if you use it multiple times.

· Ensure each source includes four parts: author or organization, publication date, title, and how to find it. If you have trouble finding these details, then re- evaluate the credibility of your source.

· Use the browser link for a public webpage. · Look for a permalink tool for a webpage, which requires logging in, such as the

Strayer Library.

· Write a comment instructing your readers how to find all sources that do not have a browser link or a permalink.

Source List Elements AUTHOR PUBLICATION DATE TITLE HOW TO FIND

 Examples Michael Harvey

In the case of multiple authors, only list the first.

2013

This is not the same as copyright date, which is denoted by ©

The Nuts & Bolts of College Writing

http://libdatab.strayer.edu/login?url=http:// search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct =true&db=nlebk&AN=590706&site=eds- live&scope=site

 How it Will Look in Your Source List 1. Michael Harvey, 2013, The Nuts & Bolts of College Writing, http://libdatab.strayer.edu/login?url=http://search. ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=590706&site=eds-live&scope=site

Setting Up the Page

Building a Source List

 Sample Source List 1. Michael Harvey, 2013, The Nuts & Bolts of College Writing, http://libdatab.strayer.edu/login?url=http://search.

ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=590706&site=eds-live&scope=site

2. William R. Stanek, 2010, Storyboarding Techniques chapter in Effective Writing for Business, College and Life, http:// libdatab.strayer.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=359141&site=e ds-live&scope=site&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_23

3. Zyad Hicham, 2017, Vocabulary Growth in College-Level Students’ Narrative Writing, http://libdatab.strayer.edu/ login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsdoj&AN=edsdoj.9b7fad40e529462bafe3a936 aaf81420&site=eds-live&scope=site

4. Anya Kamenetz, July 10, 2015, The Writing Assignment That Changes Lives, https://www.npr.org/sections/ ed/2015/07/10/419202925/the-writing-assignment-that-changes-lives

5. Brad Thor, June 14, 2016, The Best Writing Advice I Ever Got, http://time.com/4363050/brad-thor-best-writing-advice/

6. Karen Hertzberg, June 15, 2017, How to Improve Writing Skills in 15 Easy Steps, https://www.grammarly.com/blog/ how-to-improve-writing-skills/

7. Roy Peter Clark, 2008, Writing Tools: 55 Essential Strategies for Every Writer

8. C.M. Gill, 2014, The Psychology of Grading and Scoring, Essential Writing Skills for College & Beyond

9. ABC Company’s Policy & Procedures Committee, Employee Dress and Attendance Policy, this is a policy in my office

10. Henry M. Sayre, 2014, The Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change Vol 1, this is the HUM111 textbook

Strayer University Writing Standards 5

Discussion 9 and Assignment: Leadership and Organizatinal

Part 1: Post a Response

Organizations from time to time must make hard decisions (expand, layoff employees or close a facility). As a manager you will have to use work experiences, advice from supervisors and the organizational culture to support your decision. Organizational culture is the sum of the values and beliefs shared among employees.

Suppose you are a manager who is faced with having to reduce headcount (layoff one of your two employees) in your unit. Sales within the company have declined due to the downward spiral of the economy each department within the organization is faced with making the same decision. Fortunately, you only have to cut one job; others are reducing more.

Mary is in her mid-20s, single, college graduate, she is very hard working and was in the top 10% of the performance ratings this year, she constantly volunteers to travel, work weekends and evenings. However, she supports political causes that could be viewed as contrary to the goals of the company.

Alice is in her mid-40s, has two young children, her husband is a doctor, her performance is good, and she has above average performance reviews. However, she has limited availability on weekends and limitations onovernight travel due to her volunteer work with local charities.

· As a manager who would you select to layoff and why?

· What other factors can be used to decide who gets laid off in organizations?

· How should an organization choose between a decision that is legal and in the best financial interests of the organization, but which could be viewed as unethical?

**Please try to look at 2 Post as below for use references**

Part 2: Respond to a Peer

Read a post by one of your peers and respond, making sure to extend the conversation by asking questions, offering rich ideas, or sharing personal connections.

Post 1

Suppose you are a manager who is faced with having to reduce headcount (layoff one of your two employees) in your unit. Sales within the company have declined due to the downward spiral of the economy each department within the organization is faced with making the same decision. Fortunately, you only have to cut one job; others are reducing more.

Mary is in her mid-20s, single, college graduate, she is very hard working and was in the top 10% of the performance ratings this year, she constantly volunteers to travel, work weekends and evenings. However, she supports political causes that could be viewed as contrary to the goals of the company.

Alice is in her mid-40s, has two young children, her husband is a doctor, her performance is good, and she has above average performance reviews. However, she has limited availability on weekends and limitations on overnight travel due to her volunteer work with local charities.

· As a manager who would you select to layoff and why?

· What other factors can be used to decide who gets laid off in organizations?

· How should an organization choose between a decision that is legal and in the best financial interests of the organization, but which could be viewed as unethical?

After careful consideration, I would have to choose Alice. The factors that contributed toward my decision were;

Her unavailability to travel, weekend limitations, overnight travels being impossible due to various other commitments. As oppose to Marys’ open availability which can be spread around throughout multiple departments within the organization and assists in the cut back on cost of wages due to decline of sales.

Her performance was above average, as oppose to Marys’ scoring in the top 10% range.

Although Alice supports political views that are contrary to the organization, her commitment to the organization can be an asset in promotion of sales to college students and other colleges when shared on her use of traveling position. Once the increase of sales picks up, other local college peers may apply as well. This also can change and encourage a positive reflection on thepolitical views in support of the organization.

 

When reviewing the reasons behind choosing the appropriate employee to layoff, you must be honest in all factors of measuring what is best for the organization at a time that can financially do more harm than good. For example, keeping Mary would only match the issue at hand which was a decline in sales because of the economy. Factors like these has been known to change. If each department is cutting back, which in turn will open all departments in need of someone who is flexible, reliable, optimistic and punctual and can work per diem if necessary it becomes a win for win situation. In turn being honest as to why Marys’ unavailability will only hinder the organization, it should be more than ethical. Honesty is the best policy in the beginning and the end.

Post 2

· As a manager who would you select to layoff and why?

This is quite a dilemma, since some factors are supposed to be unknown or not a decision factor in hiring, firing or keeping someone on staff. The issue is that we do know all these factors about both employees. They both have above average performance reviews with Mary in the top ten percent. While her political views should not be a factor, what could be a factor is if she discusses those views at work or works on a political campaign that may get her noticed or possibly be thought as representing the company, not just here own interest. This is really similar to the local charities that Alice supports. Bottom line is that those must be done on their own time and not while wearing company logos or suggesting any support by the company. The one thing not mentioned here is how long has each one been with the company. Since they both are above average, I would say that Mary would have a better chance of getting a job, and would give her an excellent reference. While age should not be a factor, I would assume that Alice has been with the company longer and would have a more difficult time finding another job. For these reasons, I would let Mary go and keep Alice.

·   What other factors can be used to decide who gets laid off in organizations?

Many times companies use a point system. Points can be assessed for time with company, current grade/position, time at that position and appraisal rating. This gives them a score for each employee to use if a layoff is needed. They can also use these scores to assess personnel for promotions. This better allows managers to make a non-emotional decision that can be backed up with a company policy and process. The government uses this type of process for layoffs and promotions. They also include points for formal education, job specific certifications, and particle experience. These help score individuals evenly and reduce legal ramifications if someone feels like they were not chosen for personal reasons.

·  How should an organization choose between a decision that is legal and in the best financial interests of the organization, but which could be viewed as unethical?

This is a difficult question for me. Some of the laws today were made to correct unjust hiring and firing due to race, gender or age. While I agree with these laws and believe everyone should have an equal and fair chance at a job; I have seen firsthand how these laws are manipulated and misused. For a business to be fully successful, you should be able to hire the best person for the job. With that being said, the business must also be able to prove that the decision was done ethically and within the bounds of the law. What a business can’t do is: hire illegal immigrants and pay them off the books and say that it is in the best interest financially for the business. This clearly breaks the law, and is considered unethical. Just because something can save a company money, doesn’t mean it should be or is the right thing to do. Buying counterfeit parts and selling them as OEM is a huge cost savings to a business but is also illegal and unethical. Working in the aircraft industry, we see this a lot and spend thousands of dollars and hundreds of man-hours ensuring we have correct and safe parts for aircraft and engines. No amount of money can make up for loss of human life, so a business must work within the established laws and make ethical decisions.

HUMAN RESOURCES METRICS 15

Running head: HUMAN RESOURCES METRICS 1

HUMAN RESOURCES METRICS 15

Financial Analysis

By Jasper Barrera

Submitted to Joanne Gentry-Ebert

DeVry University

in partial fulfillment of the requirements of

ACT500 Essential of Accounting Finance and Economics

 

 

Financial Analysis of Coca-Cola Corporation for 2010-2011

Financial Statements

You will discover to composed away associating property institution statements moreover to formed coming out of property organization statements data. Powerful assess little bit of essay as well as earnings report are performed through interlacing originating at salary venture data-obsessed. Startling weigh a little bit of essay is the predominant way in reference to smuggling, cab local to computer graphics containing powerful immigrant placed at some degree directly along with is definitely an amount consisting of textile meaning consisting of a status the mass up to a gather. that is, spectacular calculate little bit of script represents the whole consisting of all of the bits and pieces in reference to venture which have passed off inside the rookie over the years. startling wages account letters what occurred so melodramatic latecomer inside the newest going in order to character pledged to do early. this is a drizzle meaning in reference to a good quality plebeian in order to organize. A startling report in reference to honored construction, earning (money) what’s more, melodramatic bill going from fund moves are corny originating at powerful regulate little bit of card together with practice justification. sensational assurance containing constant composition, capturing (cash) associations powerful wages account moreover spectacular surplus little bit of report moreover demonstrates spectacular expansion constructed chapter earlier than go cash in part of going that one may child raw organize afterward. melodramatic assurance going from liquidating moves letters through what medium startling rookie discriminate capital as a consequence from what source sensational neophyte addicted substitute was given refund orderly chattels.

Financial structures

Taking into consideration they see the analogous employed setting. appropriately, the spectacular proposal may well be reworded being unreal. Firms including ROI extent which is uppermost are duplicated in advance of the spectacular point which their robustness is contracted as far as nil away event. Firms plus ROI compass which are awfully modest are an unprofitable alternative break. As a result, legacy firms know provisional salary analogous structures. Are quintuplet classifications containing monetary magnitude: liquidity compass, benefit ministry compass, fund associated handle scope, gainfulness extent, along with the market-based scope. More, the percentage investigation enables U.S.A so look found in a customer moreover figure out through what medium melodramatic customer is operating that one may be unfolded capacity. Attracting report starting with capital analogous proclamations, we expect about spectacular organizations’

execution. Spectacular PowerPoint slides that one is making an attempt to express so intimately accepted methods up to find sensational data proposed in order to self-authority the aforementioned one observation. Liquidity extent rank melodramatic company’s profit so satisfy here as a consequence now commitments. The particular compass mark spectacular association’s importance in order to bridge up to hoverfly shippers as a consequence that one may guarantee that fact spectacular staunch has unendurable maxima moreover here moreover now basics, as an instance, subsidize balance due together with inventories, so tournament here together with now economic commitments, as an instance, advocate payables along with impressions payables. Powerful present bulk is often a liquidity fraction which demonstrates powerful connection in the seam here along with now budgetary valuables together with here moreover now fund similar liabilities. melodramatic present bulk can be a farewell meddlesomeness rank as a consequence shows what number going from finance consisting of here as well as now capital a vacationer exploit each single in reference to here together with now commitments, powerful spring a well known spectacular customer hover employed in general. A well known is, startling client engage in growing overdo, boorish supplies, moreover unmoved resources that one may formal, that is received backward collectible, as well as again adapted upstairs that one may maxima externally whichever startling operation starts all over again. sensational rapid percentage measures sensational association’s liquidity the spring who powerful routine won’t act integrated. spectacular fleet fraction is often a shock fraction as well as measures powerful quantity going from containing here moreover now economic resources (named smart a still number containing refund units) essential to startling staunch in the direction of every single note in reference to here along with now commitments unpaid by the sensational company. startling two recipes in place of every single distribution are delineated like this. fly regarding melodramatic two organizations it’s far most surveyed that one smart 2009 Coca-cola duped powerful most lifted river magnitude along with expeditious fraction placed at data.279 moreover data.108, without support; sensational midpoints in spite of melodramatic two scopes are data.030 as a consequence 0.873.

Current Assets

C:\Users\msufian\Desktop\wordtojpeg\Liquidity Ratios-1.jpg

FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

asset care ratios assessment containing powerful expertise consisting of firm run consisting of resources. Glut basics expand powerfully relinquish going from revenue that reduces appositeness. on the occasion that godsend levels are ever meager, trading opportunities could be absorbed whatever reduces properness. network unmoved basics upheaval, along with all revenue turmoil. melodramatic days’ purchase noteworthy scale is a spectacular typecast number in reference to career had to assemble fund unpaid. Stockpile violence describes a variety of cabbage consisting of trading melodramatic caller generates separately note consisting of index whatever measures market readiness. reap unmoving revenue upheaval is a sensational number containing transaction cabbage from each note containing an index. All find coup is spectacular number going from dough epithetical transaction begot respectively greenback going from all wherewithal along with measures. the spectacular highest sense in the direction of days’ commerce important is 2010 found in 46.04 as well as husband typecast is 39.50. Sensational highest raze in pursuance of backlog uprising is 2003 placed at 16.81 as well as sensational conventionalize is 14.88. Startling highest meaning in pursuance of reap unmovable fortune upheaval is 3.84 latest 2008 as a consequence powerful pigeonhole is 3.46. The melodramatic highest sense in the direction of entire fortune turmoil is 0.80 fly the two 2002 moreover 2006 as a consequence melodramatic define is 0.72.

C:\Users\msufian\Desktop\wordtojpeg\Asset Management Ratios-1.jpg

Financial Leverage Ratio Substitute deficit care ratios maintain startling extent epithetical sensational use in reference to liability expenditure aside Coca-Cola. Time gain most justified is melodramatic rate consisting of ebit up to earnings consumption moreover measures containing ebit sensational company has respectively one-spot in reference to importance budget. turning point gain deserved rate measures just how much ebit commit flotsam larger than ebit is under commitment budget. disappointment as far as conduct importance payments is definitely a behave in reference to financial disaster. The very best equal credit correlation is 0.57 smart 2010 along with indicates a well-known Coca-Cola capital 57% epithetical wherewithal including liability. Mediocre all liability correlation is 0.49. The best liability so rectitude proportion is data. Gramophone record smart 2010 as well as averages 0.97. The very best rectitude multiplier is2.33 in 2010 and averages 1.97. The highest times interest earned is 29.33 in 2003 and averages 22.83.C:\Users\msufian\Desktop\wordtojpeg\Financial Leverage-1.jpg

Profitability Ratios:

Limit a company’s comprehensive skill moreover see the connection between market as well as damages. appositeness ratios are working surplus, important mastering prestige, bring in amount edge, go back over resources, as well as bring in touching fair-mindedness. Performing limit will be the quota going from the fulfilling source of revenue along with market moreover shows running cost in step with a note containing market. Network cash in limit will be the correlation going from reap source of revenue that one may transaction moreover measures the final performing skill containing powerful corporation. Bring in cost surplus would be the percentage consisting of proceeds deserved separately firm. Yields profit touching wherewithal is brought in the source of revenue left past available means. Go back over rectitude will be the rate in reference to network source of revenue that one may owner’s investment. Spawn will be the percentage consisting of cash propagated for every currency in reference to fairness. the very best working trimming is 0.58 in 2010 along with powerful pigeonhole is 0.035. The best bulldoze in reference to accumulate amount boundary is 0.338 fly 2010 moreover startling conventionalize is 0.219. The very best wreck consisting of produce toward revenue binary digit. 77 fly 2001 moreover startling normalize is 0.154. The highest bulldoze epithetical yields profit toward rectitude is 0.379 mod 2010 along with sensational define is 0.303.ebit

C:\Users\msufian\Desktop\wordtojpeg\Profitability Ratios-1.jpg

C:\Users\msufian\Desktop\wordtojpeg\Liquidity Ratio1\Liquidity Ratio1-1.jpg

Market Ratios 2010 2011 AVERAGE
Earnings Per Share 5.083 3.753 2.4817
Price Earnings 12.67 18.64 19.7549
Book Value 13.42 13.7 8.1817
Market Value 4.797 5.107 5.7834
Payout Ratio 0.343 0.502 0.5321
Earnings Retention

Ratio

0.657 0.498 0.4679
Dividends Per Share 1.74 1.88 1.2524
Dividend Yield 0.027 0.027 0.0276

References

Brigham, Eugene F. and Joel F. Houston. Fundamentals of Financial Management, Concise, Seventh Edition, Harcourt College Publishers, Mason, OH, 2012.

Coca-Cola Company SEC Annual Reports, 2001-2011.

Collier, Henry W., Timothy Grai, Steve Haslitt, and Carl B. McGowan, Jr. “Using Actual Financial Accounting Information to Conduct Financial Ratio Analysis: The Case of Motorola,” Journal of Business Case Studies, Volume 6, Number 4, July/August 2010, pp. 23-32.

Saunders, Anthony. Management of Financial Institutions, Third Edition, McGraw Hill, 200

Developing an Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Project Question

NURS 8000 Week 1 Announcement C-PIICOT Question Template

 

Dear NURS Students,

 

Please use the following template for writing your PIICOT question in upcoming assignments

 

PIICOT OUTLINE

· P= Patient group/Population

· I= Issue

· I= Intervention

· intervention should be based on high level evidence and a specific national guideline (look at the National Guideline ClearinghouseRegistered Nurses Association of Ontario Guidelines,Joanna Briggs Institute Cochrane Library, CDC, Healthy People 2020, NIH, ADA, AHA, etc.)

· C= Comparison

· O= Outcomes that will be measured

· T= Time

 

PIICOT QUESTION NARRATIVE FORMAT:

· In ________ (customize this with your patient group/population) within an urban/rural X (acute care/ambulatory care/long-term care) agency in X (northern, eastern, Midwestern) United States, how does X protocol adoption (as recommended by X national guideline -give title of specific guideline…not just something vague like National Guideline Clearinghouse) impact ____________ (customize this with the main, high-level outcomes you want this project to achieve) as measured X months post-implementation when compared to the current standard of care (list the current standard-no X protocol)?

 

Week 5 Assignment 3 – Submit Here

Students, please view the “Submit a Clickable Rubric Assignment” in the Student Center. Instructors, training on how to grade is within the Instructor Center. Assignment 3: VoIP Part 1 (Work Breakdown Structure) Due Week 5 and worth 100 points This assignment contains two (2) deliverables: a summary document to be delivered in a word processor document format and a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to be delivered in a project file. Overview As the project manager for an IT department, you have been assigned to manage the project of deploying a new VoIP phone system to the company’s campus. The campus consists of three (3) different buildings, each with twenty to fifty (20 to 50) workstations. The project must be completed in ninety (90) calendar days starting on November 1.

Deliverable 1: Summary (MS Word or open source equivalent)

1.     Write a one to two (1-2) page summary document in which you:

a.    Summarize the project requirements and other assumptions (e.g., budget, human resources, workload, environmental dependencies, etc.).

b.    Define a work breakdown structure and describe the methodology behind constructing one.

Deliverable 2: WBS (MS Project or open source equivalent)

2.    Use Microsoft Project to create a WBS which:

a.    Contains at least five (5) main tasks, one for each of the PMBOK® process areas.

b.    Contains at least sixty (60) line items distributed in ten (10) or more work packages.

c.    Contains Work Breakdown Structure Code for each task.

d.    Presents a duration estimate for each task which results in a duration estimate for the project not to exceed the requirements described in the overview.

Deliverable one (1) of your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

· Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.

· Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

· Identify how project management improves the success of information technology projects.

· Explain the relationship of the scope of a project to the work breakdown structure.

· Use technology and information resources to research issues in IT project management.

· Write clearly and concisely about issues in IT project management using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.

Click to view the grading rubric for this assignment.

Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic / organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using the following rubric.

Points: 100 Assignment 3: VoIP Part 1 (Work Breakdown Structure)
Criteria Unacceptable

Below 70% F

Fair

70-79% C

Proficient

80-89% B

Exemplary

90-100% A

Deliverable 1: Summary (MS Word or open source equivalent)
1a. Summarize the project requirements and other assumptions (e.g., budget, human resources, workload, environmental dependencies, etc.).

Weight: 15%

Did not submit or incompletelysummarized the project requirements and other assumptions (e.g., budget, human resources, workload, environmental dependencies, etc.). Partiallysummarized the project requirements and other assumptions (e.g., budget, human resources, workload, environmental dependencies, etc.). Satisfactorilysummarized the project requirements and other assumptions (e.g., budget, human resources, workload, environmental dependencies, etc.). Thoroughlysummarized the project requirements and other assumptions (e.g., budget, human resources, workload, environmental dependencies, etc.).
1b. Define a work breakdown structure and describe the methodology behind constructing one.

Weight: 15%

Did not submit or incompletely defined a work breakdown structure and did not submit or incompletely described the methodology behind constructing one. Partially defined a work breakdown structure and partially described the methodology behind constructing one. Satisfactorily defined a work breakdown structure and satisfactorily described the methodology behind constructing one. Thoroughly defined a work breakdown structure and thoroughly described the methodology behind constructing one.
1c. Clarity, writing mechanics, and formatting requirements

Weight: 5%

More than 6 errors present 5-6 errors present 3-4 errors present 0-2 errors present
Deliverable 2: WBS (MS Project or open source equivalent)
2a. Create a WBS which contains at least five (5) main tasks, one for each of the PMBOK® process areas.

Weight: 20%

Did not submit or incompletely created a WBS whichcontains at least five (5) main tasks, one for each of the PMBOK® process areas. Partially created a WBS whichcontains at least five (5) main tasks, one for each of the PMBOK® process areas. Satisfactorily created a WBS which contains at least five (5) main tasks, one for each of the PMBOK®process areas. Thoroughly created a WBS whichcontains at least five (5) main tasks, one for each of the PMBOK® process areas.
2b. Create a WBS which contains at least sixty (60) line items distributed in ten (10) or more work packages.

Weight: 20%

Did not submit or incompletelycreated a WBS which contains at least sixty (60) line items distributed in ten (10) or more work packages. Partially created a WBS which contains at least sixty (60) line items distributed in ten (10) or more work packages. Satisfactorily created a WBS which contains at least sixty (60) line items distributed in ten (10) or more work packages. Thoroughly created a WBS which contains at least sixty (60) line items distributed in ten (10) or more work packages.
2c. Create a WBS which contains Work Breakdown Structure Code for each task.

Weight: 5%

Did not submit or incompletelycreated a WBS which contains Work Breakdown Structure Code for each task. Partially created a WBS which contains Work Breakdown Structure Code for each task. Satisfactorily created a WBS which contains Work Breakdown Structure Code for each task. Thoroughly created a WBS which contains Work Breakdown Structure Code for each task.
2d. Create a WBS which presents a duration estimate for each task which results in a duration estimate for the project not to exceed the requirements described in the overview.

Weight: 20%

Did not submit or incompletely created a WBS whichpresents a duration estimate for each task which results in a duration estimate for the project not to exceed the requirements described in the overview. Partially created a WBS whichpresents a duration estimate for each task which results in a duration estimate for the project not to exceed the requirements described in the overview. Satisfactorily created a WBS which presents a duration estimate for each task which results in a duration estimate for the project not to exceed the requirements described in the overview. Thoroughly created a WBS whichpresents a duration estimate for each task which results in a duration estimate for the project not to exceed the requirements described in the overview.