American Anthropological Association 2009 Style Guide

American Anthropological Association 2009 Style Guide

Visual Continuity GuideAAA Sty l e Gu ide 2009

American Anthropological Association 2009 Style Guide

I. General Guidelines …………………………………….. 1

Article Titles and Section Heads ………………… 1 Capitalization ………………………………………….. 1 Non-English Words and Quotations ………….. 2 Italics ………………………………………………………. 2 Numbers …………………………………………………. 3 Punctuation …………………………………………….. 3 Quotations………………………………………………. 4 Running Text …………………………………………… 4 Tables, Figures, and Appendixes ……………….. 5 Text Citations and References Cited ………….. 5

II. Orthography …………………………………………….. 6

III. Reference Examples …………………………………. 7

Single-Author Book …………………………………. 7 Coauthored Book …………………………………….. 7 Author, with Others …………………………………. 7 Multiple References in the Same Year ……….. 7 Work Accepted for Publication …………………. 7 Work Submitted for Publication or Unpublished Work ……………………………… 7

Materials in Archives ………………………………… 7 Chapter in Book with Editor(s) ………………….. 7 Editor as Author ………………………………………. 7 Article in Journal ……………………………………… 7 Article in Journal, Special or Theme Issue …………………………………………… 8

Book in Series ………………………………………….. 8 One Volume in Multivolume Work ……………. 8 Review ……………………………………………………. 8 Report …………………………………………………….. 8 Ph.D. Dissertation or M.A. Thesis ………………. 8 Paper ………………………………………………………. 8 Reprint or Translation ………………………………. 8 Subsequent or Revised Edition ………………….. 8 Article in Newspaper or Popular Magazine ………………………………….. 9

Personal Communication …………………………. 9 Court Case ………………………………………………. 9 Electronic/Online Sources …………………………. 9 Non-English Publications with Title Translation ……………………………………… 9

Audiovisual Recordings and Multimedia ………… 9 Authors of Forewords, Afterwords, or Introductions ……………………………………… 9

Table of Contents

Sources consulted: The Chicago Manual of Style (15th edition, 2003); The Handbook of Nonsexist Writing (New York: Lippin- cott and Crowell, 1980); Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (11th edition, 2006); MLA Style Manual (2nd edition, 1998); and United States Government Printing Office.

Copyright ©2009 American Anthropological Association (July)

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1. Article Titles and Section Heads

(a) Do not put endnote callouts on display type such as titles, section heads, or epigraphs. Place them after nearest hard punctuation or at the ends of excerpts. Never use endnotes inside excerpts or after soft punc- tuation (i.e., commas, em-dashes, in lines of poetry).

(b) Do not number section heads

(c) Use the following terms for each separate submission: • paper = conference • article = journal or newspaper • chapter = book • essay = essay in journal, book, etc. • review = review in journal or newspaper

2. Capitalization

Follow Webster’s and Chicago

(a) Ethnic, Socioeconomic, and Other Groups (Chi- cago 8.41–8.45)

• Capitalize these terms as noted (unless author objects): African American, Afro- American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian American, Canadian American, Eu- ramerican, Euro-American, Euro-Canadian, European American, European Canadian, First Nation, Hispanic, Indo-European, Jew, Latina, Mesoamerican, Native American, Pacific Islander, Australian and Canadian Aboriginal and Aborigine

• Lowercase these terms as noted: aboriginal (where not Australian or Canadian); black; highlander, but Highlander (where referring to Scottish); indigenous; mestizo; native (as adj. except for specific populations, such as noted above); redneck; white

(b) Events (Chicago 8.81–8.84) • Capitalize historical, quasi-historical, po-

litical, economic, and cultural events or plans: Battle of the Books, Boston Tea Par- ty, Cold War (20th century, USSR vs. USA), Great Depression, the Holocaust, Indus- trial Revolution

• Lowercase: California gold rush, civil rights movement, cold war, depression

(c) Figures, Tables, and Appendixes (exception to Chicago) • Capitalize in text if they refer to items within

the present work, lowercase if they refer to those in other works:

◊ In Figure 1 ◊ As you can see in Table 2 ◊ In Johnson’s figure 1 ◊ Evidence in Johnson’s table 1 agrees

with my own (Table 2)

(d) Historical and Cultural Terms (Chicago 8.77–8.80) • Where capitalized by tradition or to avoid

ambiguity, per Chicago and Webster’s use: Middle Ages, Progressive Era, Restoration, Roaring Twenties, Stone Age

• Lowercase: ancient Greece, nuclear age, ro- mantic period, U.S. colonial period

(e) Names of Organizations (including committees, associations, conferences; see Chicago 8.66–8.76)

• Capitalize full official names, but lowercase “the” preceding a name, even where it is part of the official title: the Baltimore City Coun- cil, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau, Circuit Court of Cook County

• Lowercase where they become general: the bureau, city council, congressional, council, county court, federal

I. General Guidelines AAA uses The Chicago Manual of Style (15th edition, 2003) and Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (11th edition, 2006). This guide is an outline of style rules basic to AAA style. Where no rule is present on this list, fol- low Chicago. For spelling, follow Webster’s first spelling if there is a choice and use American not British spellings. This guide does not apply to newsletters, which frequently deviate from these guidelines in the interest of space and tend to follow many Associated Press style rules.

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(f ) Names of Places (Chicago 8.46–8.63) • Capitalize geographical and popular names

of places: Antarctica, Asia, Atlantic, Back Bay (Boston), Central America, City of Brother- ly Love, Foggy Bottom (D.C.), Ivory Coast, North Pole, Orient, the States, Third World (do not hyphenate as adj.), Upper Michigan

• Directions should be capitalized where used as a name but not where used as a direction:

◊ Caribbean Islands; Far East; North India; North Pole; Pacific Islands; the South; South India; South Pacific; the Southwest (n.), but southwestern (adj.); the West; Westernize

◊ northern Michigan, the south of France, southeastern, western Samoa, the Western world

• Lowercase: eastern Europe, western Europe, central Europe. Exceptions: use Eastern and Western Europe in the context of the politi- cal divisions of the Cold War; use Central Europe in the context of the political divi- sions of World War I

(g) Titles and Offices (Chicago 8.21–8.35) • Capitalize civil, military, religious, and pro-

fessional titles only where they immediately precede the name. In formal usage, such as acknowledgments or lists of contributors, capitalize the title following the name: B.A. in anthropology; Judy Jones, Smith Professor Emeritus at Yale University; Professor Jones, associate professor of education studies; a professor emeritus; Henry Trueba, chair of the Department of Education Studies; the chairman of the department

• For academic degrees or titles, capitalize where formal, lowercase where informal: Louis Spindler, Ph.D.; a Master of Science degree from University of Virginia; a mas- ter’s degree in education

(h) Titles of Works (Chicago 8.164–8.177) • For titles of works in AAA journals, referenc-

es cited, and notes: change capitalization only. Do not change anything else, even spelling or punctuation (exception to Chicago).

• Capitalize first and last words of titles and subtitles in English. For other languages, fol- low Chicago.

• Capitalize both words in a hyphenated com- pound (exception to Chicago)

• Do not capitalize parenthetical translations of titles in references cited

3. Non-English Words and Quotations

(a) Diacritics • Alert production editor of unusual char-

acters or fonts in advance of submission to verify access to usable fonts

(b) Quotations • Put non-English sentences and quotations in

quotation marks (and do not italicize)

(c) Translations • Include translations of non-English words

in parentheses immediately following (or vice versa, but keep consistent throughout the work)

◊ ellai (borders) and cantippu (cross- roads)

• Include translations of foreign-language quo- tations either in an endnote or in brackets immediately following the quotation (with- out italics and without quotation marks)

◊ “Todas somos amigas de desde chiq- uitas, casi puras vecinas” [We are all friends since we were small, and al- most all are neighbors].

• For translation of non-English titles in refer- ences, see example #24 in the Reference Ex- amples section

(d) Words • Italicize non-English words that do not ap-

pear in the main section of Webster’s. Itali- cize them on first use only, unless used as a term (see 4a below)

4. Italics

(a) Words as Words • Italicize words used as words (e.g., as terms)

in written context; but where the context is solely the spoken word, is used for ironic ef- fect, or is a concept, use quotation marks.

◊ In Smith 1994 the term subaltern implies

◊ to keep children on the “right path” academically

◊ Bourdieu, who utilized notions of “cultural capital” and “habitus”

◊ Bourdieu defines cultural capital and habitus as

(b) Legal Cases (Chicago 8.88): • Use italics for names of legal cases

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(c) Publication Names • Italicize publications used as authors in in-

text citations, but leave roman in references cited. See Reference Examples section.

(d) Use of “[sic]” (Chicago 11.69) • Italicize word, not brackets • Correct obvious typographical errors rather

than use [sic] • Do not italicize: e.g., i.e., or cf.

5. Numbers

(a) Spell out numbers in the following instances • One through ten • Numbers at the beginning of a sentence • Numbers used in the approximate sense

◊ The area comprises roughly two hun- dred viable sites; not 200

◊ About 15 thousand soldiers were killed; not 15,000 or fifteen thousand

(b) Age • 24 years old, 11 months old, a 34-year-old

woman, in her thirties

(c) Currency • Assume dollar designations are in U.S. cur-

rency. Otherwise (e.g., Canada) use: ◊ US$200 (not U.S.) and CAN$200

• Do not use $ with USD (e.g., $20 USD), as it is redundant

• Refer to the Government Printing Office for pre-Euro designations, or flag for the pro- duction editor

(d) Dates • ninth century, 20th century; 1960–65; 1960s

(not 60s); the sixties; October 6, 1966; April 1993 (no comma); C.E. 1200; 1000 B.C.E.; April 18, not April 18th

(e) Fractions • Hyphenate as both adjective and noun: a

two-thirds majority, two-thirds of those present

(f ) Inclusive numbers • Do not elide numbers in a range: 893–897;

1,023–1,045 • Elide year spans (exception to above): 1989–92

(g) “Mid-” • Hyphenate numbers or numerals: mid-thir-

ties (age), mid-1800s (years) • Use an en-dash (–), rather than hyphen (-),

with an open compound: mid–19th century, mid–Cold War

(h) Numbered items, such as parts of a book, are not capitalized

• chapter 5 (in reviews ch. 5 or chs. 5–7), part 2

(i) Ordinals (nd or rd) • 22nd, rather than 22d; 23rd, rather than 23d

(j) Quantities (Chicago 9.3–9.4; 9.19) • Use numerals above ten and spell out mea-

surement: 26 millimeters, five miles, 15 kilo- meters (not km); but in tables, OK to use 26 mm, 5 gm, 10 mph

• Express round numbers above ten million in numerals + words: 20 million

• 20 percent, but in tables, OK to use % • Use commas in four-digit numbers: 1,409;

but not page numbers (p. 1409)

(k) Series • Where dealing with more than one series

of quantities, use numerals for one of the series

◊ The first shape had 4 sides, the second had 7 … and the twelfth had 3

• Where small numbers occur in a group with large numbers, set them all in numerals for consistency

(l) Statistics (Chicago 9.20–9.21; 13.5) • Decimal fractions: use initial zero only if

number can equal or exceed 1 ◊ 0.3–1.5 ◊ according to a Chi-square test yield-

ing a value of 4.2, p < .05 ◊ Kappa = .33, p < .05

• Use N for sample sizes, but use n for sub- groups of samples

(m) Time • 2:00 p.m., noon

6. Punctuation

(a) Binary distinctions, dichotomies, or equal relation- ships: use en-dash, not solidus or hyphen

• parent–teacher; us–them; mind–body, not mind-body or mind/body

• Previously published phrases are excepted: Foucault’s power/knowledge

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7. Quotations

(a) All published quotations must be cited with year and page number(s)

• (1992:7–8)

(b) Avoid “cited in” where citing quotes within another work. Use the work listed in references cited and adjust the language outside parentheses

• As Johnson notes (Webber 1992) • Do not use: (Johnson, cited in Webber 1992)

(c) Quotations from interviews or conversations that have not been published or aired should be cited in text and include interviewee name, interviewer name, month, day and year of interview (see Chi- cago 17.205)

(d) Format for block extracts • If extract takes more than four manuscript

lines, make it a block extract • Use brackets for citation at the end of a block;

put sentence period before citation • If italics have been added, specify:

◊ [Smith 1993:22, emphasis added] ◊ Do not use “emphasis in original”

• If multiple paragraphs occur within a con- tinuous block, the first paragraph should have no indent, but subsequent paragraphs should be marked by indents rather than ex- tra leading

(e) Change the case of the initial letter of a quote to fit the sentence without using brackets (Chicago 11.35)

(f ) When a quotation that is run into the text in the typescript is converted to a block quotation, the quotation marks enclosing it are dropped, and in- terior quotation marks are changed accordingly (from Chicago 11.35):

• The narrator then breaks in: “Imagine Bart’s surprise, dear reader, when Emma turned to him and said, contemptuously, ‘What “promise”?’ ”

becomes

The narrator then breaks in:

Imagine Bart’s surprise, dear reader, when Emma turned to him and said, con- temptuously, “What ‘promise’?”

(g) Spelling and punctuation corrections • Leave all spellings and punctuation alone in

quotes; use [sic] only if necessary, and give an explanation in text if absolutely necessary

(h) Do not use initial or final ellipses

(i) Do not use quotes for yes or no except in direct discourse (Chicago 11.44)

8. Running Text

(a) Abbreviations • Do not use in narrative text in most cases • Ampersands: replace all “&” with “and” • In scholarly works:

◊ Only abbreviate in parentheses: (i.e., e.g., etc.)

◊ Spell out in text: that is, for example, et cetera, and so forth

(b) Articles in titles • Drop or romanize articles in titles (a, the)

from text ◊ In 1998, a New York Times op-ed

piece indicated ◊ The Washington Post article contends

(c) Avoid gender-related language • Never use “s/he,” “him/her,” or “his/her.” Use

“he or she” or rewrite as plural to avoid. • See Casey Miller and Kate Swift’s The Hand-

book of Nonsexist Writing (New York: Lip- pincott and Crowell, 1980)

(d) Commas • Use serial commas • Use a comma to separate the clauses of a

compound sentence but not a compound subject or a compound predicate unless there are three or more elements

• Use commas around parenthetical elements

(e) Dialogue • Spell out names on first occurrence and then

use initials on subsequent occurrences: Ruth Benedict: Franz Boas: RB: FB:

(f ) Lists • Run lists into text with (1), (2), (3), etc. Do

not use (a), (b), (c), etc.

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• Use pairs of parentheses, not singles

(g) Spaces between initials • T. S. Eliot, H. L. Mencken

(h) Spelling • Use the first spelling in Webster’s unless oth-

erwise noted

9. Tables, Figures, and Appendixes

(a) Table and figure widths depend on the size of the journal. Ensure that all text and figures are sized to fit within the margin limitations of submitting journal or contact your journal’s production editor at Wiley-Blackwell for verification.

(b) Every table and figure should have a callout in run- ning text:

• This year’s annual meeting survey showed a sharp increase in caffeine consumption [Place Table 1 here].

(c) Place appendixes at the end of the article, after ref- erences cited

10. Text Citations and References Cited

(a) All references must be cited in author–date form; all author–date citations must be referenced

(b) Alphabetization • References with the same author and date

should be placed in alphabetical order, by title

(c) Citations • Place text citations as near the author’s name

as possible, except place quotation citations after the quote

• Use colon, no space, between year and page number (exception to Chicago)

◊ Waterman 1990:3–7 • Use “et al.” in text citations of three or more

authors, but use all names in references cited

• Use full first names where possible for au- thors and editors (but do not force if author goes by initials)

• Where citing an author, put the year in pa- rentheses, but where citing a work, leave the year (and page numbers, if applicable) in the running text

◊ Author: Smith (1990) eloquently de- scribes the material.

◊ Work: Smith 1990 contains an analy- sis of the material.

(d) Do not use ibid. for repeated references

(e) Notes • Where citing a note or notes, use

◊ (Boulifa 1990:10 n. 12, 24 nn. 12–13)

(f ) Works in production or near publication • Text citations: in press; n.d. • References cited: In press; N.d.

(g) Reprinted material • Where citing reprinted material, use date

from work used in text citations and insert all dates in references cited list

◊ Text citations: (Webber 1994) ◊ References cited: Webber 1994[1849]

(h) States (Chicago 15.29; 17.100) • Spell out state names in text • Do not use state name with city of publica-

tion in references unless the city is obscure or there are several with the same name

• Where state name is used in notes, referenc- es cited, tables, or addresses, use two-letter postal code abbreviations (e.g., AL, TX, DC)

(i) Translations • In references where the author also is the

translator use: Victor Hugo, ed. and trans.

(j) Volumes • If a volume is the only one referenced in the ar-

ticle, then include its number in references cit- ed and omit its number from the text citation

• Cite a specific volume of a referenced work by inserting the volume number after the year

◊ (Waterman 1990, vol. 2:3–7)

(k) Multiple places of publication • Where there are two places of publication

for a reference, use only the first. •

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II. Orthography

• Acronyms: do not spell out common acronyms: AFL-CIO; CIA; FBI; HIV/AIDS; HMO; IMF; NASA; NATO; NGO; UNESCO; UNICEF; USAID; WHO; WTO

• America or American: For clarity use the noun United States and the adjective U.S. unless a wider region is intended

• and/or: never use • anti-inflammatory • archaeology; exception is AAA’s section Archeol-

ogy Division • Arctic (n.), arctic (adj.) • audio-recorded, audio-recording, audiovisual • basketmakers (artisans), Basket Maker (cultural

period) • besides • bride-price (per Webster’s) • bridewealth (per Webster’s) • ca. (circa, per Chicago) • Classic Maya • cross-gender • coresident, coworker • database • de-emphasize • early-century, late-century • e-mail, Internet, online, website • fax • field notes, fieldwork, fieldworker • full-time, part-time (hyphenate in any position as adj.) • health care systems; but federal and state health-

care systems (hyphenate only for clarity) • a historical study (not an historical study), a hotel • Letters as shapes: Leave normal font—that is, do

not use with sans serif typeface—in cases such as U-shaped, L-shaped

• lifespan, lifestyle, lifeworld • Ligatures: Do not use except in an Old English lan-

guage piece • m.y.a. (million years ago), B.P. (before the present,

calibrated), b.p. (before the present, uncalibrated) • nation-making, nation-building (exception to Chi-

cago) • the Netherlands; but The Hague (per Webster’s) • non-kin (hyphenate to avoid confusion) • participant-observation • rain forest (per Webster’s) • re-create (create again) • semi-independent, semi-indirect (use hyphens for

double vowels, except as in Webster’s) • September 11; September 11, 2001; 9/11 (not Sep-

tember 11th or September 11th, 2001) • Split infinitives (Chicago 5.106)

◊ Although from about 1850 to 1925 many grammarians stated otherwise, it is now widely acknowledged that adverbs some- times justifiably separate the “to” from the principal verb {they expect to more than double their income next year}.

• sub-Saharan • toward (not towards) • Teotihuacan (Nahuatl, without accent on last a;

Spanish, with accent) • underway (adj.); under way (adv.) • unselfconscious • worldview •

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III. Reference Examples

1. Single-Author Book

Castles, Stephen 1990 Here for Good. London: Pluto Press.

2. Coauthored Book

Bonacich, Edna, and John Modell 1975 The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small

Business in the Japanese American Community. Berkeley: University of California Press.

3. Author, with Others (cite first author in text citations)

Bonacich, Edna, with Mark Smith and Kathy Hunt 1999 The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small

Business in the Japanese American Community. Berkeley: University of California Press.

4. Multiple References in the Same Year (alphabetize by title)

Gallimore, Ronald 1983a A Christmas Feast. New York: Oxford Uni-

versity Press. 1983b Holiday Gatherings in the Pacific Northwest.

Berkeley: University of California Press.

5. Work Accepted for Publication

Spindler, George In press In Pursuit of a Dream: The Experience of

Central Americans Recently Arrived in the United States. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

6. Work Submitted for Publication or Unpublished Work

Smith, John N.d. Education and Reproduction among Turkish

Families in Sydney. Unpublished MS, Department of Education, University of Sydney.

7. Materials in Archives

Egmont Manuscripts N.d. Phillips Collection. University of Georgia Li-

brary, Athens.

Davidson, William A. N.d. “On several occasions she would even join in

our discussions.” Untitled paper, John P. Gillin Pa- pers: Box 10.1. Peabody Museum Archives, Har- vard University, Cambridge, MA.

Ambasamudram Taluk 1879 Settlement Register, Tirunleveli District. Ar-

chived material, Madras Archives, Chennai (Ma- dras), Tamilnadu, India.

8. Chapter in Book with Editor(s)

Rohlen, Thomas P. 1993 Education: Policies and Prospects. In Koreans

in Japan: Ethnic Conflicts and Accommodation. Cameron Lee and George De Vos, eds. Pp. 182– 222. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Price, T. Douglas 1984 Issues in Paleolithic and Mesolithic Research.

In Hunting and Animal Exploitation in the Later Paleolithic and Mesolithic of Eurasia. Gail Larsen Peterkin, Harvey M. Bricker, and Paul Mellars, eds. Pp. 241–244. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, 4. Arling- ton, VA: American Anthropological Association.

9. Editor as Author

Diskin, Martin, ed. 1970 Trouble in Our Backyard: Central America in

the Eighties. New York: Pantheon Books.

10. Article in Journal

Moll, Luis C. 2000 Writing as Communication: Creating Strate-

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gic Learning Environments for Students. Theory into Practice 25(3):202–208.

11. Article in Journal, Special or Theme Issue

Heriot, M. Jean 1996 Fetal Rights versus the Female Body: Con-

tested Domains. Theme issue, “The Social Pro- duction of Authoritative Knowledge in Pregnancy and Childbirth,” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 10(2):176–194.

Heriot, M. Jean, ed. 1996 The Social Production of Authoritative Knowl-

edge in Pregnancy and Childbirth. Theme issue, Medical Anthropology Quarterly 10(2).

12. Book in Series

Singh, Balwant 1994 Independence and Democracy in Burma,

1945–1952: The Turbulent Years. Michigan Pa- pers on South and Southeast Asia, 40. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

13. One Volume in Multivolume Work

Clutton-Brock, Juliet, and Caroline Grigson, eds. 1986 Animals and Archaeology, vol. 1: Hunters and

Their Prey. BAR International Series, 163. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.

1998 The Practice of Everyday Life, vol. 2: Living and Cooking. Rev. edition. Luce Giard, ed. Timo- thy J. Tomasik, trans. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

14. Review

Trueba, Henry T. 1999 Review of Beyond Language: Social and Cul-

tural Factors in Schooling Language Minority Students. Anthropology and Education Quar- terly 17(2):255–259.

Barret, Rusty 2001 Review of Handbook of Language and Ethnic

Identity. In Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 12(2). Electronic document, http://www.aaanet. org/sla/jla/toc/toc12_2.htm, accessed December 3, 2002.

15. Report

Kamehameha Schools 1977 Results of the Minimum Objective System,

1975–1976. Technical Report, 77. Honolulu: Ka- mehameha Schools, Kamehameha Elementary Education Program.

16. Ph.D. Dissertation or M.A. Thesis

D’Amato, John 1989 “We Cool, Tha’s Why”: A Study of Personhood

and Place in a Class of Hawaiian Second Graders. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Education, Uni- versity of Hawai‘i.

17. Paper

Shimahara, Nobuo K. 1998 Mobility and Education of Buraku: The Case

of a Japanese Minority. Paper presented at the An- nual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Chicago, November 18.

Poveda, David 2000 Paths to Participation in Classroom Conver-

sations. Paper presented at the 7th International Pragmatics Conference, Budapest, July 9–14.

18. Reprint or Translation

van Gennep, Arnold 1960[1908] The Rites of Passage. Michaela Vizedom

and Mari Caffee, trans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bakhtin, Mikhail 1981 The Dialogic Imagination. Caryl Emerson

and Michael Holquist, trans. Austin: University of Texas Press.

19. Subsequent or Revised Edition

Gallimore, Ronald 1960 Qualitative Methods in Research on Teaching.

In Handbook of Research on Teaching. 3rd edi- tion. Margaret C. Wittrock, ed. Pp. 119–162. New York: Macmillan.

Gallimore, Ronald 1962[1960] Qualitative Methods in Research on

Teaching. In Handbook of Research on Teaching. Rev. edition. Margaret C. Wittrock, ed. Pp. 119– 162. New York: Macmillan.

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20. Article in Newspaper or Popular Magazine

Reinhold, Robert 2000 Illegal Aliens Hoping to Claim Their Dreams.

New York Times, November 3: A1, A10.

Editorial 1992 Washington Post, February 14: B2.

Talk of the Town 2000 New Yorker, April 10: 31.

New York Times 2002 In Texas, Ad Heats Up Race for Governor. July

30.

21. Personal Communication (including e-mail, listserv, and newsgroup messages and unpub- lished interviews)

Should be cited in text citations, with specific date, but not in references cited:

Horace Smith claims (letter to author, July 12, 1993)

22. Court Case (Chicago 17.283–17.287)

Should be cited in text citations but not in references cited:

(Doe v. U. Mich., 721 F. Supplement 852 [1989])

23. Electronic/Online Sources (Chicago 17.4–17.15)

Specific conventions exist for citing different types of online sources. See Chicago for guidance on cit- ing online books (17.47, 17.142–17.147), journals (17.180–17.181), magazines (17.187), newspapers (17.198), informally published materials (17.234– 17.237), reference works (17.239), multimedia (17.270), CDs and DVDs (17.271), public documents (17.357) and databases (17.357–17.359). In addition to the information typically included in citations, each electronic resource reference should also in- clude a URL and date accessed. Where there is no author per se, the owner of a referenced website may be listed (see Chicago 17.237). To cite personal com- munications completed via electronic media, see ex- ample #21 in this section.

American Anthropological Association 2000[1992] Planning for the Future: Current Long-

Range Plan for the American Anthropological Association. http://www.aaanet.org/committees/ lrp/lrplan.htm, accessed January 18, 2001.

American Anthropological Association N.d. About AAA. American Anthropological Asso-

ciation. http://www.aaanet.org/about/, accessed June 29, 2009.

24. Non-English Publications with Title Translation (Chicago 17.65)

Pirumova, N. M. 1977 Zemskoe liberal’noe dvizhenie: Sotsial’nye ko-

rni i evoliutsiia do nachala XX veka [The zemstvo liberal movement: Its social roots and evolution to the beginning of the twentieth century]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo “Nauka.”

25. Audiovisual Recordings and Multime- dia (including published or broad- cast interviews)

Carvajal, Carmela, and David C. Kim, dirs. 1998 High School Parody. 120 min. Paramount Pic-

tures. Hollywood.

High School Parody 1998 Carmela Carvajal and David C. Kim, dirs. 120

min. Paramount Pictures. Hollywood.

Bush, George W. 2007 Interview by Jim Lehrer. The NewsHour with

Jim Lehrer. PBS, January 16.

Shakur, Tupac 1997 I Wonder if Heaven Got a Ghetto. From R

U Still Down? (remember me). New York: Inter- scope Records.

26. Authors of Forewords, Afterwords, or Introductions

Comaroff, Jean, and John Comaroff 1993 Introduction. In Modernity and Its Malcon-

tents: Ritual and Power in Postcolonial Africa. Jean Comaroff and John Comaroff, eds. Pp. xi– xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. •

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  • Table of Contents
  • General Guidelines
  • Orthography
  • Reference Examples