Annotated Bibliography




Annotated Bibliography

Miryame Samuel

South University Online

Donna Glover


Leo, L., Swinstead, E.H., Crous, F., & De Bruin, G.P. (2016). The influence of incidental haptic sensations in evaluating consumer brands. Communicare 35 (2), 1-16.

Marketing relies heavily on the concept of effective communication to the market and within an organization. Handling communication in terms of research input in recognizing the haptic experiences that is a determinant of decision making is the main focus thus the authors in this article have emphasized. From a consumer research perspective, the authors introduce the aspect of cognitive and tactile experiences as a linked concept. In view of this and previous findings, the article aims to prove that haptic sensation has an effect on the ability to evaluate products and hence an impact on decision making. The article justifies the research by pointing out previous empirical research that has already proven that there in unconscious influence in judgment causative by the haptic experience despite the characteristics of the product to be purchased. In this way, it points to a perception factor by the consumer as the main focus on the decision making.

The authors carried out two experiments with the 178 student participants, 122 females and 56 males from a Consumer Psychology class in a Johannesburg university whose average age is 19.81 years were expected to judge 28 items of a famous sportswear brand. A strong factor of consumer pre-judgment was determined to be true based on the existing perception. In conclusion, the article agrees that tactile experience as seen by the self-report questionnaire was impactful in the strength of the judgment by the consumer especially with the neutrality in consumer brand. The two main factors the consumer used to judge are based on perception were defined to be embodied cognition and mental framework but without prior knowledge of eth product, the consumers were not influenced with brand quality and thus an honest judgment.

The conclusions were well supported and completely validated the research question. The article was handled in a methodological development formant which gave insight into the process and thus a logical definition of concepts and variables. Within this measure, the article was straightforward and they fully describe the idea that preconceived notion about an idea or matter formulates the way we see those objects and what they represent and hence an influence on decision-making process (Goldstein, 2016). However, the article is biased in a way that it has not considered any other arguments and only moves towards proving one of a positive result.

D’Amour, S., Pritchett, L.M., & Harris, L.R. (2015).Bodily Illusions Disrupt Tactile Sensations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 41(1), 42–49.

Perception and sensation are tied to one factor which is the physical implication and thus a reaction to the variability in terms of information processing. These definitive aspects give rise to the tactile experiences in a form that is easily understood with a measure that is explanatory through the brain processing, proprioceptive, visual, and tactile information. The authors of the article begin by describing the functionality of this statement by presenting several literary references that describe the brain as the functionality of the nervous system in explaining distance, and reaction to an image. However, the authors are quick to point out that the body size and the perceived notion of change affect the way information is presented as it defines a different set of implication mentally hence a change in the tactile perception. The idea points to the fact that different bodies sizes are already perceived to represent different stimuli and hence the expected reaction as the information is matched to an already established idea. The implication is that body sizes affect the acuity and sensitivity of tactile perception in proving the Pinocchio illusion theory.

The approach to prove this concept by the authors has been done through four experiments with female participants. The first two experiments were done on the arm. In experiment one, nine participants were considered while in the second experiment fifteen participants were used. The mean ages were 29.6 and 28.8 respectively. The main aim for experiment one was to test for tactile acuity while experiment two tested for tactile sensitivity. A stimulus was introduced in the experiment and the movement of the arms observed upon response to the 250Hz vibration introduced in both arm and waist acuity experiments. The determinant variable being considered in this research is the size perceived during vibrations. The observation that was made was the fact that biceps made it seem as if the arm was elongation while stimuli on the triceps made it look as if it was shortening indicating misinformation thus an interruption in tactile acuity.

The article, therefore, points out that the physical presentation has an effect on the way perception and cognitive development is affected. The vibration send a message that is recognized by the sensory nerves and the reaction is defined within the same scale yet perception makes it seem to be a different message altogether. In this way, the article points out that as part of cognitive development, the sensation is a big aspect of perception but they formulate and are interpreted in two different spectrums (Treisman, & Kanwisherf, 1998). It, therefore, points out that sensation produces and action but perception is the one that puts focus on relating the information to the reaction.

Rodriguez-Menendez, G., Dempsey, J.P., Albizu, T., Power, S., Wilkerson, M.C. (2017). Faculty and Student Perceptions of Clinical Training Experiences in Professional Psychology. Training and Education in Professional Psychology 11(1), 1–9.

The authors of this article conducted an investigation in the evaluation of perception of students experience in training for their doctoral positions with consideration of the fact that the faculty is responsible for the implementation and design of their training clinical programs. 1458 respondents to the research were from the student’s fraternity while 74 were from the faculty. Majority of the respondents were female with 1219and 30 meeting the inclusion-exclusion criteria of females and white non-Hispanics in the students and the faculty population respectively. The aim was to consider the perceived quality of the training programs from both perspectives. The initial assumption made in the research is the fact that the faculty focused more on meeting the goals of the institution hence tailors the training with this outcome in place. In effect, there is a warning of limitation on the data availability a challenge that was met during the research.

The data collection was done through a qualitative aspect through a questionnaire designed with a range of agreement and disagreement response. A general overview of the training, the practicality and internship were the variables in consideration. The three variables were separately identified resulting in students rating the training lower than the faculty, with a higher rate in supervision on practical for the Ph.D. students and higher rating for PsD and Ph.D. by the faculty which is noted to be alarming. The conclusion is the fact that there is a biased perception in both sides with a clear specificity to personal consideration of experiences regardless of the outcomes. The commonly identified implication is that there is less experience seeing a practitioner in practice but more focus on them being observed in clinical intervention. The conclusion is echoed by showing that students’ perception is a lack of proper supervision. However, a different conclusion is pointed out as a justification for the results hence bias.

However, from the main focus of the research, the centrality of this conclusion seems to be a different discussion altogether that shifts away from the perception. The main concept that is applicable to perception is identified in the discussion, where it is pointed out that despite the same environmental variables and consideration, the students and the faculty see the situation from two different points of view. This view is affected by the accumulation of other factors that exist beyond the guidelines and the measure in place and most of the time is affected by the individual experiences. The faculty approach is right from their perspective as it achieves the goals and the outcomes stipulated for the course but it fails to meet the needs and wants of the students from their perspective. In this way, this article shows that perception is a factor of angle of approach and the determinant variables that are being considered hence a culture definitive phenomenon (Segall, Campbell, & Herskovits, 1966).

Zakrajsek, R.A., Martin, S.B., Wrisberg, C. A. (2016). National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Certified Athletic Trainers’ Perceptions of the Benefits of Sports Psychology Services. Journal of Athletic Training 51(5), 398–405. Doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-51.5.13

The dilemma of trust and capability is presented in this article with consideration two variables, the athletes and their trainer with the subject matter of psychological evaluation. Right from the start, the article delves into the two opposing arguments. On one hand, there is the experience of the athlete trainee in identifying what would work well with individual athletes and thus a combination of knowing compatibility and personal involvement. On the other, there is consideration of technical skills and the knowledge of the right application. In view of this, the article delves into a research with 341 male and 318 female participants aged between 22 and 66 years who have available experience between 0 and 44 years. This was done through a survey in which the demography was identified by age, gender, and experience.

The participant in the research identified that for rehabilitation of athlete injury factors such as personal issue and anxiety are the most relevant and important to consider. This places the perceived notion of psychological training to be of no consequence in this situation. As of importance, the trainee agrees that communication is the relevant for the success of rehabilitation hence a need for personal relationship prior that identifies triggers for different types of emotions. This article, therefore, points out that the response to rehabilitation method is a factor of perception within the boundaries the athletes and their trainees create. However, gender variability is seen in the females and males when it comes to the use of SPTs. This difference is observed by the gender roles that make it easy for the females to have a positive attitude and perception towards SPT due to the different internalization of culture and emotional dimension. However, the ‘macho’ nature of men may be a factor in hindering seeking psychological services.

In pointing this out, the authors bring into focus the aspect of social norms and perception in the cultural setting as the main determinants of decision making as a process. They continue to emphasize that perception may be changed depending on the influences around an individual (Pogosyan, & Engelmann, 2011). By pointing it out, they also describe perception as variable depending on the roles an individual chooses within a social setting and in the process determinant of what may be viewed right or within acceptable ranges in a social clique. The definition given in the article points out that perception in itself is an accumulation of ideas from which matching information comes naturally within that context.

Hartshorne, Charles. (1934). The Philosophy and Psychology of Sensation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1- 288.

A peak in previous studies carried out earlier on the discussion on sensation and perception are pointed to be a factor of continuity. The article definitively looks at sensation form a spiritual perspective by considering that there are dimensions within its limits. This is defined by the emotional involvement thus a reason for differentiation of color and sound and a different aspect when it comes to actual feelings. The author attributes the evidence of this occurrence to eh finding that is gotten by psychologists by a form of selective experimentation. In view of this, the book gives insight into the consideration of philosophy and interpretation as part of the sensation developed by humans in this way leading to a step by step determination of the value to be placed to an image, an emotion, and ideas.

The book stresses on the importance of inhomogeneity on traits of sensation as a combination of regularities which are not only visual but are connected to what is defined within the visual context (Rojas, & Gonzalez-Lima, 2011). In this way, the author handles sensation as two different aspects of the same spectrum with a unique character in terms of the way is interpreted. By using nonverbal communicative adjectives and symbolism, the book describes the value in consideration of different aspect rather than being confined by one definition. Using tangible examples, the book continues to emphasize how a thing like the color in describing an emotion is as separate as eth emotion itself. In pointing to this, the author identifies the fact that’s visual presentation is part of sensation and perception can be derived depending on the actual emotional attachment (Costa, 2016). In the same way, the author emphasizes the actuality of objectification of sensation as a variable in the determination of different sensations. In effect, this book gives insight to the literature that has been there and the continuous support within the field of social sciences and psychology in the determination of the definition of sensation.

The book gives an insight into consideration of the normalcy of the situation in clear points and within definite lines as a primitive misconception. It identifies that the is continuity in terms of the variables and the resultant interpretation and in this way a value in the reiteration of the fact that sensation can be attained through different pathways and connectivity with information is what defines the perceived meaning of the feeling, vision or touch. Inevitable, it gives clarity to the die that a society view and the emotional attachment in value to a particular object is likely to lead to evoking a particular sensation without necessarily getting into contact with it. It shows that emotional entanglement is a factor in the relaying of information, analysis, synthesis and the overall interpretation with consideration of external variables in relation to a previous experience.

Vergo, J. M., Poulakis, M., Lesher, T.J., Khondker, S., Benyasut, P., & Winder, C. (2017). African American Students’ Perceptions of Influential Factors for Attendance in Doctoral Psychology. Journal of the Indiana Academy of the Social Sciences 20, 127-146.

Social issues have often been the bane of most institutions and the struggles that they have had to go through. Among the social issues, there is racial accountability and equitable distribution of resources based on race. On this account, the authors identify the perception as a factor in the distribution of minorities in most American universities. Using African Americans as a representative ethnicity, the descriptive essay format of the article delves into the issues of cultural effects and implications that are denied through the increase in number and the definitive aspect of figurative increment in the minority groups. Through economic and socio-political consideration, the article delves deeply into the root cause of an inconsistent increase in African Americans getting more education.

Affordability is a key factor, it is considered only one of the measures and the perceived intervention has been pointed out to be resource input in terms of human labor, involvement in mentorship and funding. Eight undergraduate students were considered for the survey carried out in the research presented in this article. Through interview and questionnaire, the participants were involved in the analysis of the perception of choosing a particular doctoral program. The result showed that family involvement and the background were motivating factors and the perception of becoming one of the first in the position drove them to choose a particular interest. In view, the stability of the position promised by the program became a factor of consideration. This shows the perception of a promising financial gain and stability as part of the reasons for decision making. In other instances, the perception was already in place based on the response of other participants on websites. This guided some of the students in choosing a particular topic over another. Relatively, the same can be said about some of the students who were influenced by their need to help others and thus a perceived notion ingrained in the fact that psychology is helpful for other people.


Costa, M. F. (2016). Editorial: Color Vision Sensation and Perception. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1084.

Goldstein, B. E. (2016). Sensation and Perception (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning

Pogosyan, M., & Engelmann, J. B. (2011). Cultural Differences in Affect Intensity Perception in the Context of Advertising. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 313.

Rojas, J. C., & Gonzalez-Lima, F. (2011). Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain. Eye and Brain 3, 49–67

Segall, M. H., Campbell, D. T., & Herskovits, M. J. (1966). The influence of culture on visual perception. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill

Treisman, A.M. & Kanwisherf, N.G. (1998). Perceiving visually presented objects: recognition, awareness, and modularity. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 8, 218-226.