Annotated Bibliography: Biology and Psychology

Running Head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY: BIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY 1

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY: BIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY 2

Annotated Bibliography: Biology and Psychology

PSY3200

Nugrainia, S.H., Choob, K.A., Hinc, H.S., & Hoond, T.S. (2013). Students’ Feedback of e-AV Biology Website and the Learning Impact towards Biology. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 103, 860 – 869.

The main purpose of this paper is the determination of biological system and operations through examination e-AV Biology Website design, the interactive aspect of the systems and its most important features hence a good examination of the impact it will have towards learning. In view of this, the authors raise the question of improvements that have been suggested by students and the impact that is perceived to be its outcome. The justification of the studies has been highlighted at the beginning with the most notable being the difficulty that is faced in biology studies with regard to the conceptualization of ideas and versatility in problem-solving methodologies. Consideration for the global problems is another issue that has been faced through renewable energy.

The feedback methodology was a consideration of the implementation d the exact usability of the website through testing that was done and completed by 256 students in Biology in Senior High Schools of Indonesia within four weeks. The testing was successful as videos and text were well displayed in the website with clarity and comprehensiveness which are relevant for the proper educative purpose. The overall result showed that most of this students perceived individual learning as a necessity with agreement on the interactive factor as a positive aspect of the website.

The behavioral psychology that is exhibited by this research is explained in the conclusion where the student agrees that moving at a pace that is comfortable for each person makes learning easier despite it being the same content that is taught in class. The variability and flexibility of the website in itself become a tool that motivates, calls to attention and time efficient (Bowen & Irby, 2004).

England, B.J., Brigati J.R., & Schussler E.E. (2017) Student anxiety in introductory biology classrooms: Perceptions about active learning and persistence in the major. PLoS ONE 12(8), e0182506. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.

Emotions, facts, and accountability are issues that bring about psychological turmoil and hence anxiety in any situation. This creates a perception of variables in the negative or positive way. In this aspect, the authors in this article identified participation as a factor of retention. In order to fully be present in a lesson, comfort is the key factor and hence a reduction in anxiety over the lesson or the impact it would have in general. It helps in reduction of apprehension towards the expectation that is required of an individual. This aspect of the article points out to a mental recognition pattern that requires acceptability of facts and hence confidence. It requires that a student is able to internalize their fear through but in more ways than one, external help is required. Based on this requisition, the article handles the issue of incorporation of techniques that are active, therefore, inclusive learning environment. \the physical implementation and inclusive environment for the student is noted to be a great factor in effective learning and great measure in retaining the attention and focus of eth student. This factor has been considered through data collection of different instructor methodologies. In the assessment, the article points out that inclusive discussion, provision of the worksheet and voluntary participation worked towards reducing the anxiety in the students and thus an improvement in their participation with time.

A survey and interviews conducted to assess the anxiety levels of student-led to the conclusive observation of the fact that calling out for students to answer the question was one of the biggest factors in causing anxiety. This might be due to the pressure and the personal expectation that are already set in place hence a mindset that is deliberately present to critic the mistakes made. However, an observation is made on the perception of one individual over the other based on versatility on perceived notions of what is considered important and priority as well as necessity and thus a considerable difference in the response to the anxiety stimuli presented. This meant that there are different reasons for which each student developed anxiety over the same active learning practices. In effect of increased anxiety, the higher it is, the lower the grade of the individual and hence their intention to pursue biology as the subject (Cohen, n.d).

This article describes a process deliberation of anxiety as part of the inhibition to actively participate and thus a factor of response. In this way, it affects the way activities are carried out and in effect lead to an ineffective performance in an individual as they are unable to efficiently input the values and concepts given. It is thoughts and consequences that hinder prosperity in this case if they are left to dwell on the negativity. Positive reinforcement, however, is fuel for success and motivation to better oneself.

Gissig, F. & Bohm, S. (2004). NQO1activity in the main and in the accessory olfactory systems correlates with the zonal topography of projection maps. European Journal of Neuroscience 19, 2511-2518.

The connection between bodily functions is the drive through which health is attained. It is also a means through which communication with the outside world to be accurately interpreted hence brain functionality. As marked by the title, the areal presentation is the aspect that has been discussed in this article at length. The presentation is based on the physiological and the neurological representation of the sensory nerves hence ability to relay information across different spectrums. Through experimental research, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and NADPH diaphorase histochemistry were the methodology used on animal tissue stained in toxins. The connectivity across the tissue shows a migratory kind of pattern which describes a communicative aspect hence determination of the fact that the staining patterns that were attained in the experiment are indicative of immunoreactivity. The main functionality observed by this is the fact that neurons act as guides to axons thus a definitive measure that ensures specificity in terms of movement.

This means that the article focus is in the establishment of s systematic linkage between OE neurons and VN organs despite the genetic differences thus identification of specificity in terms of connectivity from one area to another. In relation is allowed that transportation of information real time hence acuity in terms of the information relevance while at the same time show that thought is systematically processed within the same region and connectively and actively synthesized.

The article focus thus describes the functionality of the movement of information and thus consideration of the aspect of definitive measure towards what is considered to be normal and what is not. Inhibitors within these sections create various forms of information processing and based on the research given by the article it is indicative of a processing inaccuracy that would be considered with a lack of connectivity across the brain functionality. In this aspect, therefore, a functionality of sensitivity to time for response and thus a reason for determination f regularity and patience in through processing to those that are not considered normal. A neurodegenerative is one of the factors that have to be taken in consideration s pointed out which lead to separation of OB and AOB noted in the article thus leading to a change in the behavior of an individual.

Barnes, J. (2013). Essential Biological Psychology. Reviewed by Alice Blackler. Psychology Teaching Review 23 (1), 85-86.

This article focuses on a review of two discussions on biological psychology, brain, and behavior as an aspect of the study of humans. In this effect, the first book discussed in the article focuses the discussion on neuroscience hence the biology effects on behavior changes and versatility in human beings. In its approach, the article defines the text to contain a descriptive deliberation of critical understanding of protein, DNA, and genetics as an aspect of differentiation between the normal and abnormal through the flexibility of the brain which has been termed as its plasticity. The functionality of brain to physic manifestation has been focused by a further explanation on the control of movement and thus affecting the sleeping patterns, motivational and emotional changes. In this way, biological psychology is described as sole functionality that starts from the brain that encounters the stimulation first. Through this encounter, the biology and normal of the abnormal functionality of the cells define what is interpreted. The interpretation turns into experiences which are identified as memory and when stored in the conscious becomes a variable through which perception about the stimuli is formed.

The article, therefore, points out that habits become motivational behaviors and thus an influence on the reaction of the brain due to memory retained and in actuality a definition of the biological rhythms. This description gives insight to the analytical aspects of identification of deviation from normalcy hence an inside look into the association of disorders between the physiology and psychology (Moschos, 2014). In this way, the article describes the effect of emotions on human health and vise versa showing the explanatory effects hence the health of both a critical aspect of consideration in clinical application and implementation of treatment techniques in this aspect. In conclusion, it emphasizes on the structural incompleteness becoming a hindrance in the analysis of basic behavior since there is no comparative analysis and information relaying leading to the development and recognition of certain disorders like dementia and schizophrenia.

Varvatsoulias, G. (2015). Cerebral cortex and psychological functions: the role of lobes in the human brain. GESJ: Education Science and Psychology 3(35), 58-68

Biology and cognitive psychology are two aspects that are connected in describing the functionality of both physical and mental precognitive aspects. The two define the originality of most of the issues in mental health and give focus to the variability that is observed in the thought processing from one individual to another. The originality of thought and the physiological implication are the main focus of this article. The theoretical application has been used to give a descriptive determination of brains cerebral cortex functionality and the physiological functionality. In this way, the article digs deeper into the association of biology and psychology as a measure of behavior and neural function. Action creates reaction seems to the approach that has been used in this article by pointing out the fact that with the complexity of the brain, it is the organ that induces action and hence behavior in humans.

Cerebral context has been specified in the article to function in the systematic organization and in the process control aspect such as visual and primary somatosensory and auditory cortex. The connectivity with the back of the brain thus provides an information relaying systems that work of interpretation hence the prioritization of actions and activities through careful putting them in a hierarchy. This is defined within the sensory systems. In this aspect, the explanation is given depending on the perception, memory, and experience and recognition capacity. This means that within this measure, the behavior is determined by preexisting information and only has to be matched within this frame. In regard to this, the author describes this as the area that dictates the verbal hence understanding of behavior in humans and why one action would create a different type of reaction from one person to another. Regarding this, the article points out that memory guides the way response to experience. The emphasis given in this article is the effect that this impact on the quality of life based on the social relationships and progression. Familiarity breeds acceptability is the conclusion in the article with stress on the fact that perception is created by the repetitiveness of imaging, ideas, and experiences.

In recognizing brain functionality as categorical in information processing, the article is clear to identify the functionality of cognitive pattern as a factor in the reaction and response to stimuli of any nature. The pointed aspect is the recognition of experiences and thus in relation to the emotional and physical attachment with time. This point out the fact that the body functionality plays a role in the way a person behaves as it dictates the pain, excitement or apprehension they have towards the stimuli. It is the reason why emotions may be attached t objects or ideas and thus a psychological aspect in its definitive state. It shows that information is learning process that takes place with time and experience with it defines the type of perception that would be embraced (Hejmadi, 2007).

Rocca MA, Valsasina P, Pagani E, Bianchi-Marzoli S, Milesi J, et al. (2011) Extra-Visual Functional and Structural Connection Abnormalities in Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. PLoS ONE 6(2), e17081. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017081

The authors of this article have focused on the Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, LHON and the effects that come within putting emphasis on the disorders that develop beyond the visual and into the nerves and auditory networks. Inherited from the maternal parental lineage, LHON affects the optic nerve and the caliber fibers. In effect, a mutation observation is seen leading to albinism is some instances part from the loss of sight. Using an experimental approach of noninvasive experimental observation through MRI assessment, the article aims to understand further development and prove whether the brain function is affected or if it is only within the visual systems. The research was done in the article is defined by the assessment of non-visual networks, the neuro-ophthalmology correlation, connectivity in the cortex, and correspondence.

The aim is to identify whether there are a shred functionality and system communication that may be hindered with the progression of LHON. In having this experiment, the article proved that consistency with visual interruption is evident across all patients due to a transitioning that eventually leads to degeneration of the transynaptic. The same is also seen across the auditory network with no implications in other areas. This indicates that there is stability in the evaluation and thus careful deliberation in terms of the progression of the disease with time which may lead to a change in behavior.

This is because, over time, the individual affected with LHON loses some of the stimuli for sensation in terms of the visual and the vocal aspect. On some level, this may lead to an instability in terms of emotions since trying to reach for something stored in memory to match with a perception becomes challenging. A person will rely on the memory in order to account for the lack thereof and in the process a need to change in the behavior as reliance on the sense of smell becomes more important. This shows that a change in biology affects the perception as it is guided by less than what a person has been used to before. The indication would, however, be comparatively different for a person born blind or deaf in the sense that they have no memory of the visual representation and therefore rely on the imagination. The same would apply to new experiences and in this way, perception would be created on the basis of external knowledge and smell meaning acuity developed in this area in for effective retaining capacity (D’Amour, Pritchett, & Harris, 2015). Using this article brings the idea of change in biology as a factor in the change in behavior due to influence in the psychology explained in the emotions developed.

References

Cohen, M. (n.d). “Student guide to surviving stress and anxiety in college & beyond.” Learn Psychology. Retrieved from https://www.learnpsychology.org/student-stress-anxiety-guide/

D’Amour, S., Pritchett, L.M., & Harris, L.R. (2015).Bodily Illusions Disrupt Tactile Sensations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 41(1), 42–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038514

Hejmadi, M.V. (2007). Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of teaching large classes: development and evaluation of a novel e-resource in cancer biology. Journal of Bioscience Education 9(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.3108/beej.9.2

Irby, D.M. & Bowen, J. L. (2004). Teaching strategies: Time-efficient strategies for learning and performance. The Clinical Teacher 1(1), 23-28.

Moschos, M. M. (2014). Physiology and Psychology of Vision and Its Disorders: A Review. Medical Hypothesis, Discovery and Innovation in Ophthalmology, 3(3), 83–90.