Session 2017/2018 Ref:
Module Code: ACS-5-446

May 2018


A written examination of two hours duration and an assignment of specified word length and structure. The relative weighting of the two elements is 60:40. The pass mark is 40%. Details of these assessments are given below.


A laboratory report on proximate analysis is required. All the four labs (determinations of moisture, ash, protein and fat), calculation of carbohydrate (indirect method) and the energy value must be included.

The report must be structured as shown below.

· Title (proximate analysis of milk powder or proximate analysis of sausagemeat).

· Abstract

· Introduction

· Methods

· Results

· Discussion

· Conclusion

· References

· Presentation

· Appendices (where appropriate)

Word length: The limit is 1500. References and bibliographies will not count towards the word length. Any work beyond the word length will not be marked.


The coursework must be word-processed, double-spaced and paginated.

Plagiarism Please note that this is a serious issue, refer to the University regulations for further details. Avoid plagiarism.


27th May 2018 & 10th June 2018 (DDS).

SUBMISSION: Please submit through the ‘Turnitin’ link on Moodle.

Please stick to the specifications and avoid late submission.

Late submission will be considered in the light of a valid mitigating circumstance. You should obtain extension from the Course Director.


· Abstract (5%)

· Introduction (20%)

· Methods (15%)

· Results (20%)

· Discussion (20%)

· Conclusion (10%)

· References (5%)

· Presentation (5%)

The following will be assessed; knowledge, understanding, structure, references, grammar and spelling. The learning outcomes should be shown clearly. The assignment should be concise, structured and well written.


Feedback will be given to students 10 to 15 working days after the submission of an assignment


There are certain rules you should follow in all forms of scientific writing:

· Write in the past tense

· Avoid the use of ‘I’ or ‘We’. Write in the passive tense.

· Always reference your source material fully.

· Use SI units only

· Species names should be given in full, written in italics e.g. Homo sapiens

· Chemical names should be written in full, together with the chemical abbreviation, the first time they are used e.g. sulphuric acid (H2SO4)

· DO NOT copy directly from practical schedules. ALL work must be your own.

The standard format for a scientific report is as follows:

· Title

· Abstract

· Introduction

· Methods

· Results

· Discussion

· Conclusion

· References

· Appendices (where appropriate)


The title should be brief and informative, explaining clearly what the report is about.


The abstract should be a short (no more than 200 words) summary of the essential information from the report. It should set out the background, aims methods results and conclusions. The results and conclusions are the most important part of the abstract.


The introduction should describe the background and aims of the investigation. It should clearly answer the following questions:

· What has been done before

· What still needs to be investigated

· Why is the work important

· What are the aims of the investigation


The method section should describe:

· What was done

· How it was done

· What equipment was used

· What statistical tests were used

If you have been working from a detailed practical schedule, do not copy the method but describe any changes that you made. You do not need to list every item used but you should record the details of any analytical instrumentation used – make, model and operating parameters.

You do not need photographs/diagrams of standard items of laboratory equipment.


The results section should describe and show what was found, together with the analysis of the findings. DO NOT interpret or explain the results in this section.

The text should clearly explain the key features of the results and describe what is being shown in each table or graph. Refer to your tables etc. by number. e.g. Table 3, Graph 2

· Every table, graph or diagram should be clearly numbered, in sequence, and have a clear descriptive heading.

· Each table (including title) should fit on one page.

· Each column in a table must have a clear heading, including units of measurement.

· All graphs should be drawn using MS Excel (or equivalent software) – ensure you use the correct graph type for your data!

· Graphs should be large enough for data to be clearly visible.

· Variables must be plotted on the correct axis.

· Axes must be clearly and correctly labelled and units shown.

· Data points must be shown on graph.

· Where a regression line is fitted, the equation and R2 value should be shown.

· Data and results of calculations should be shown to the same number of decimal places as the original measurements.

· Results of statistical analysis should state the name of the test, the test statistic, number of measurements and the level of significance accepted.


The discussion should interpret and explain the results of the experiment and relate your findings to other published work.

· Summarise your key results, relating them to the stated aims.

· Discuss each finding in turn, relating to other work where relevant and explaining any differences you may have found from published and/or expected results.

· Identify areas where you had problems and/or potential sources of error (DO NOT simply blame poor results on ‘human error’ or the experiment being ‘too difficult’).

· Identify areas for improvement in the experimental design (DO NOT claim that automated/computerised apparatus would give better results) and suggest how the investigation might be continued.


· Conclude with a paragraph that summarises the key findings and their interpretation.


You should include a complete list of ALL the references that you cited in your text, using the Harvard System of referencing (

References to web sites should include the full web address of the actual site used (not links from search engines) and the date and time the site was viewed.


Your results section should contain the key data, but this may have been processed from a larger data set that is not included.

You may occasionally wish to include this raw data and/or additional information, such as print-outs from instrumentation, examples of calculations, etc. in your report for reference. This information should be placed in the appendices. Each type of information should be placed in its own numbered and clearly titled appendix.

Table 1: Measurements of lead, cadmium and biomass at increasing distances from the road.
Distance from Road (m) Pb concentration (ppm) Cd Concentration (ppb) Biomass (g)
0 125
10 118
25 113
50 97
100 70
250 7.5

Figure 1: Scatter graph showing relationship between distance from road and lead concentration

y = -0.469x + 122.4 R² = 0.994

0 10 25 50 100 250 125 118 113 97 70 7.5

Distance from Road (m)

Pb concentration (ppm)