Change Models

Kotter’s Eight Stage Process

  • Issue based change
  • Moderate toxicity and moderate resistance within the organization

Establish a sense of urgency

Create a guiding coalition

Formation of group

Belief you can do it

Adequate payoff

Describe the issue

Kotter’s Eight Stage Process

Develop a vision and strategy

Communicate the change vision

Empower broad-based action

Believing you can get things done – achieve


Power – done through other people

Generate short-term wins

Consolidate gains, and produce more change

Anchor change with new approaches in the culture

Harvey’s Checklist Model

  • Overcome a toxic situation
  • High resistance and toxicity – urgency

Is it a good idea? Do the benefits outweigh the risks?

Is there moderate strain among the people?

Five stress inducing strategies –

authoritative command,



targeting, and

norm incongruence

Harvey’s Checklist Model

Do they believe they can do it?

Theory of small wins – Celebrate the baby steps

When you don’t believe you can change you don’t

Is there a positive vision?

Is there a payoff for the change?

Is there participation in the change?

“Buy-in” – if you don’t have buy-in you don’t have change

Manager’s Model for Change

  • Communication based change
  • High trust and low toxicity
  • A high change organization

Determining the need or desire for change

Prepare tentative plan(s)

Analyzing probable reactions

Making a final decision

Manager’s Model for Change

Establishing a time table

Communicating the change

Implementing the change

Start the cycle over