CHAPTER FIVE: RESULTS: DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS

Contents Introduction iii Discussion v Limitations vii Implications viii Recommendations ix Research Question 1 (RQ1) ix Research Question 2 (RQ2) ix Research Question 3 (RQ3) x Conclusion x References xi

Purpose

The purpose of this research was to determine employee perspectives of the leadership behaviors of human services managers within a nonprofit human services organization. Specifically, this study aimed to understand the impact of leadership style on employees in human services organization located in the northeastern United States. This quantitative study was conducted by administering an online survey via Survey Monkey to workers who give direct care in a nonprofit human services organization. A survey was disseminated to gauge if there is a correlation or dissimilarity in the leadership of managers who have didactic and professional backgrounds in human services versus those who have backgrounds in non-human services. Out of 500 potential participants a power analysis was conducted on the GPower website calculated that 102 surveys were needed to find a medium effect, however 113 was filled out. Of those, 10 participants failed to provide information on their managerial educational background, leadership style or both. They were eliminated, so there were 103 surveys completed. The results of the data study demonstrated that there was one significant correlation flanked by education.

The reason of selecting 500 participants is to make the effective quantitative analysis while at the sampling, the best selected samples are selected as the survey has been done by using the online portal in which some of the employees provide the accurate information and the other employees may not take the survey serious. Overall the survey provides the complete details and the benefits of leadership in organizations.

Summary of Study

Success of an organization is based on the leadership behavior as the workflow of an organization is based on the performances of the employees. Leaders of an organization should have leadership skills so that they will be able to manage the pre-consequences for the outcomes of the work. This research is totally based on the perspective of employees about the leadership as the selected technique is quantitative because more employees can provide more effective information about the leadership at the specific organization. Previous researchers have described that the leadership behavior is based on the performance of an employee but somehow, if the behavior of leader is appropriate with the employees, the performance of the employees will be more better because when a leader appreciate an employee, the motivation level of employee gets very high so that they can do their tasks with best effort (C. Raddats and J. Burton, 2011).

This research will provide the framework based on the results that how the leaders should behave with the employees in the good or bad situation because ups and downs are the part of any business but if the leaders are strong, the outcomes will be positive. At some stages the leaders should be able to take the strong decisions for the better performance and in case if any employee is not performing well, leader should motivate that specific employee to boost up the performance of the employee. The research information and the techniques have been described in the chapter entirely to ensure that how this research can be more useful and effective for the leaders.

The first chapter served to give the framework that was essential to understanding the impact that leadership qualities has on employees in human service organizations. This study intent was to identify management factors that could improve the functioning of a nonprofit human services organization. The rising consciousness that leadership qualities are lacking in managers of nonprofit human services organizations developed into the notion of this study. The research presently obtainable is either focused, on leadership qualities in companies of profit, many but there were restricted studies in leadership qualities in nonprofit organizations.

Within reviewing countless studies seeking to pinpoint the leadership qualities of individuals in supervisory positions within human service organizations, the canvasser determined where a hold in the current literature existed. This after that developed into a research inquiry that sounds interesting and quantifiable: Which three activities (personal backing, aim emphasis, and work easing) do human service managers process and what essential qualities are they deficient?

The hypothesis was guided from three research question. They correspond to the three leadership behaviors of interest (aims emphasis; personal backing and work easing). The hypothesis sought to ascertain how these variables have to do with one another and influence leadership behaviors. Hypothesis one compared those with degrees, human services managers with human service degrees or preceding background process more emphasis on goals. Hypothesis two compared those with human service degrees human service managers with no degrees and only human services experience process more emphasis on personal backing. Hypothesis three compared those with no human services degrees or preceding background process the same emphasis on work easing. Therefore, the following hypothesis was bases on the research question.

The second chapter presented current review of leadership studies and practices, it also assesses the review of human services management and organizational ethos because it will refer to the data analysis that can only be useful to organizations in the human services arena. Discussion of leadership is detailed since it is imperative the success of any organization. An extensive analysis of leadership perceptions was presented since it formed the shaping of how leadership skills affect employees. Leadership adds to the organizations place of self- worth, employee burnout, and gets the most out of individual promise and then better meets the goals of the organization (Glisson,1989).

The third chapter explained the design of the study including the utilization of a survey instrument, the company and administration of the instrument as well as the compulsory sample size required to acquire accuracy. The approach for collecting data was discussed including where the survey would be conducted and how many rejoinders were needed to make certain the results were precise. The chapter as well specified the questions being utilized within the survey and made clear how each hypothesis would be addressed. The methodology for data analysis was as well was roofed in Chapter 3. It was concluded that two -group analysis will be used t- tests, ANOVA. ANCOVA, MANOVA, or MANOVA tests to ascertain the relationship amongst the variables of leadership behaviors: aims emphasis; personal backing; and work easing.

The fourth chapter presented the analysis of the data that was acquired utilizing the survey instrument. The data that was gathered was the use of a questionnaire and was presented on a question- by question basis. With the statistical verdicts of each overviewed and structured. As well, any correlations among variables were reconnoitered using correlations, chi-squares, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). The hypotheses were reviewed using the MANOVA determined if conclusions might be drawn on the legality of each hypotheses. All hypotheses were reconnoitered, the matching data was offered, and suitable suppositions made clear. Also, Chi-Square analysis was used to examine demographic variables pertaining to the managers’ background in human service. The meticulous results of the survey are conferred within segment 5.4.

Discussion and Conclusions

The effectiveness of research is very important because the selected topic is directly interacted with the project success. Employees are the most important part of an organization as the whole workflow is dependent of the employees as if the performance is appropriate, the business or an organization will be successful. Leadership factors are necessary to integrate with the organization because there are small teams in every organization and each team has been managed by a leader. Leadership interaction with the employees defines the consequence of the task or a project whereas the behavior of the leader at the workplace is also very important in the organizational success. The conducted research is the result provider about the employee’s perspective about the behavior of leadership (Helgesen, 2005).

In organizational leadership, there are two major things on which we focus appropriately. First is about employer’s focus in organizational important consequences in which the employees use to arrange their interpersonal behavior regarding their organization. Secondly, employee focuses on his/her perceptions which are really necessary for the employer’s development. So that he can percept several consequences about their organization Organizational Leadership have some dimension which describe the influence in the social behavior. Where an employee can built a good social circle and interactions with other people so that can effect there interpersonal skills which can also lead them toward Leader Political Skills which will be very useful for the management purpose of an organization. Another important constraint for employee, that he/she has to control or has to come up on the emotional exhaustion so that he can implement the work inn organizational appropriately.

Organizational regulations are usually violated with the behavior of an individual that may affect their organization as well as its citizen. The organizational management can make some negative deviance whereas effect will be on financial well-being of organization which may contain a big loss of the organization. Positive deviance is the behavior which an organization does not authorize until unless that behavior help the organization to achieved their targets and goals .If positive deviance can help in these sequential purpose , organization can give that behavior a title of the innovative behavior with dysfunctional derivatives .Negative deviance occur in an organization because of absenteeism and workload on the employees ,this actually create negative behavior among employees which can affect the desire target of an organization either its profit or loss .Organization has to face it very well otherwise it will be really harmful for the organization (J. M. Birkinshaw and A. J. Morrision, 1995).

When ethical environment of any organization is good, the perception of employees depends the management if the environment provided to employees is better than positive deviance will be mentioned as an innovative behavior otherwise negative behavior will definitely effect on the organizational behavior. In any organization leadership tactics influences is also the major category which may create an ethical and pure political environment by which we vividly gleam the ligations of an article development. Influence tactics may distribute the workload of an employee or may be increase the workload. That totally depends upon the numbers of tactics which are given by management system.

Results

The purpose of the study was to determine which three leadership behaviors (personal backing, aim emphasis, and work easing) do human service managers process and what essential qualities are they deficient? There are three associated hypotheses acquired from this question and they are as followed:

Research Question 1 (RQ1):

Is there a difference in aims emphasis, as a leadership behavior between non-profit human services managers with or without human services degrees? Two survey items measured the leadership dimension of “aims emphasis.”

Research Question 2 (RQ2)

Is there a difference in personal backing, as leadership behavior, between non-profit human services managers with and without human services degrees? Three survey items measured the leadership dimension of “personal backing.”

Research Question 3 (RQ3)

Is there a difference in work easing, as leadership behavior between non- profit human services managers with or without human services degrees? Four items measured the leadership dimension of “work easing”.

All three research questions were address at once in a single analysis by using the MANCOVA test.

Holding a human degree did not seem to increase the manager’s effectiveness. However, valuable information was gained. One that manager’s overall effectiveness matched their effectiveness in three individual dimensions of leadership: aims emphasis; personal backing; and work easing. The MANCOVA results argued that the related dependent variables (aims emphasis; personal backing and work easing) do not represent a conceptually distinct outcome: effectiveness. An effectiveness rating on a scale of 1-10 should be conducted. Another was that differences between managers with and without degrees disappeared when the overall effectiveness was factor out, but there were differences between the means that showed that managers with degrees are better at aims emphasis: personal backing; and work easing therefore future research should be proposed to discover what managers without human services degrees and or professional backgrounds do to make up for their deficits.

Limitations

As compared to the previous researches, this research is much optimized because the technique is quantitative, and the selected organization is having several experiences so that the employees provided the information which will be effective while concluding the research. Leaders in an organization should have to be mentally strong to face the issues as well as the management of the employees will also be considered as the major factor. In several researches, the focus was based on the individual leadership in which the suggestions were appropriate but as an organization, the employee’s feedback is necessary because employees will be having the complete interaction with the leadership as well as the workplace. The leaders should initially analyze the current environment of the organization so that they will be able to manage the workflow within the premises of an organization. This research provides the strategy to the leaders who will be having the departments to manage, as the framework defined the issues which can be overcome and the constraints which should be followed by a leader in the organization (Mintzberg, 1980).

The limitation of the research is based on the limited survey as it has been mentioned above that the selected participant were 500 while the large scale research can provide the more effective results but the conducted research is for SME(Small and medium enterprises) as most of the leadership issues are existing in the medium and small level organizations, So the limitations , can be overcome by making the research on large enterprises for the quality and assurance and the authentic information. Therefore, the results of this research are pertinent to a human service organization in this region. Nonetheless, this ought to be considered when applying the results to other human service organizations that do not fit into this profile (Airman-Smith &Markham, 2004).

The limitations of the research encompass the geographical area wherein the study was conducted, the number of surveys taken delivery of, and only one organization was involved in the research. Therefore, the results of the research are pertinent to nonprofit human services organizations in this region. Yet, this ought to be pondered when applying the upshots to other nonprofit human services that do not match the profile (Airman- Smith &Markham, 2004).

One organization agreed to be involved in the study. Even though the organization was one of the biggest in the state of Massachusetts, it allowed for a comparatively small number of managers to be rated based upon the perceptions of their employees. So, the limitations can be overcome by making the research on larger enterprises for the quality assurance and the authentic information

Implications

Impact of leadership on the employee’s behavior is also the concern of the research as the employees also follow the leader’s behavior as most of the organizations are based on the institutes where the employees learn the leadership skills from their leaders. Whereas some employees are having appropriate sense of leadership so that they would get to know that how to deal with the leaders. Leaders should not be very linnet because sometimes the strictness is necessary to achieve the current goals of organization as well as the market. Research have shown that the leaders should have to play a neutral role but sometimes the hard decision makings can help the leaders in the career.

The worldwide administration aptitudes of conduct intricacy and stewardship improvement that add to corporate reputational capital are key immaterial assets that use practical upper hand in the 21st century. Two exercises at the firm-and industry-level on the effect of insufficient worldwide administration and squandered reputational capital are inspected. Four administrations rehearse for enhancing key aggressiveness is given: worldwide authority abilities, official oversight duties regarding worldwide corporate notoriety, a yearly worldwide reputational review, and worldwide honors and rankings to concentrate energy on the key elusive assets for maintainable upper hand in the 21st century.

An investigation of current administration hypothesis is displayed, alongside a synopsis of the significant writing discoveries. Accentuation is set on giving thoughts which have functional rather than hypothetical application. A sub-subject in the article is that authority aptitudes can be learned or educated, and the composition challenges organizations to actualize initiative improvement programs.

Recommendations

The selected topic of the research is considered as the most critical topic because most of the small and medium enterprises are facing loss due to lack of leadership skills. The management of those organizations should have to conduct the awareness session about the leadership skills where the employees and the leaders would get to know that how to deal in the situation of the pressure in an organization because most of the issues exists due to lack of pressure handling in an organization.

Conclusion

The information about the complete framework of the leadership behavior has been described in the chapter as the research samples has been analyzed and described in the report for the appropriate quality of the research. Quantitative analysis has been discussed in the report for the better implication and for the effective results of the leadership in the modern era. The knowledge has been described that the leadership skills are the important factor in the organizational success. These findings can be utilized by present nonprofit human services organizations to further build on their managers. The findings can also be utilized by canvassers to build on further studies that continue to address the changing aspects of leadership in nonprofit human services organizations.

References

C. Raddats and J. Burton. (2011). Strategy and structure configurations for services within product-centric businesses. Journal of Service Management, vol. 22(4), 522-539. Helgesen, S. (2005). The Web of Inclusion: Architecture for Building Great Organizations. Washington, D.C.: Beard Books. J. M. Birkinshaw and A. J. Morrision. (1995). Configurations of Stratgey and Structure in Subsidiaries of Multinational Corporations. Journal of International Business Studies, 729-753. Mintzberg, H. (1980). Structure in 5’s: A Synthesis of the Research on Organization Design. Management Science, vol. 26(3), 322-341.