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Unit 7 Unidentified Condition: Adrenalin, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Hypertensive Retinopathy

10 hours ago

https://herzing.blackboard.com/images/ci/ng/avatar_150.gifVera Waters 

RE: Unit 7 Unidentified Condition: Adrenalin, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Hypertensive Retinopathy

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This week’s current symptoms of adrenaline: Increased epinephrine (catecholamine production) from the adrenal medulla. Heart Rate: Increased resting heart rate with intermittent bursts of arrhythmia. Blood Pressure: Systemic hypertension reported over the past 8 months,Hypertensive Retinopathy: arteriolar constriction, vascular wall changes, cotton-wool spots, yellow hard exudates, and optic disk edema.

 

 

The first question of if increased catecholamine production causes a high resting heart rate, high blood pressure, and arrhythmia. With the research I conducted it states that catecholamine hypertension is high blood pressure that is caused by catecholamine (epinephrine and norepinephrine. These symptoms are produced when the body is under stress. Adrenal tumors that secrete catecholamine can increase blood pressure as well as medication containing catecholamine. With this information, I would say “yes” catecholamine can be associated with the symptoms of high blood pressure, arrhythmia, and a high resting heart rate. The reasons being is that when the body goes through an ordeal like an intense workout a panic attack or an illness this increased symptom can occur causing a fast heart rate or high blood pressure.  The interesting fact about this symptom is that it can contribute to high blood pressure however it is stated that and recommended that with individuals with hypertension or prehypertension working out is essential in better control over hypertension and overall heart all heart health.

 

Would hypertensive retinopathy be associated with an acute or chronic disease? High blood pressure is a condition that will put an individual at risk for the development of some health disorders that can affect the organs of the body like the brain, heart, and kidneys. Hypertensive Retinopathy is developed due to having high blood pressure for long periods of time it damages the retina. This condition can also be acquired through other conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol, and smoking. This condition can be in the category of acute or chronic depending on the individual’s overall health. This condition can be a chronic condition due to diabetes. However, if the underlying condition that causes hypertension is controlled, then this symptom can fall into the acute category.

 

With the current symptoms, my final diagnosis of diabetes has not changed, and I will explain why. The first week’s symptoms of metabolic, hemostasis, triglycerides abnormalities were presented there was one symptom that stood out to me to determine my primary diagnosis of diabetes, and that was insulin resistance. When the pancreases stop producing insulin diabetes will develop. From week to week I wondered if my diagnosis made sense even though the symptoms changed every week there was always a symptom that leads me back to my primary diagnosis. Week two symptoms that further proved my diagnosis was increased production of reactive oxygen species(ROS). When researching this symptom and seeing the effects it has on the body and how it’s highly linked to diabetes due to the production of symptoms being in the kidney cortical in early diabetes. In week three symptom that helped further my diagnosis was increased cortisol. Researching this symptom and seeing how this plays a significant role in the development of diabetes due to the symptom releasing in the blood causing an urge for sugar which ultimately causes weight gain. The symptoms in week four did not really help my primary diagnosis. However, the conditions fibromyalgia has symptoms that are associated with diabetes like fatigue, and insomnia.  From my knowledge of diabetes when the body has massive amounts of sugar present if can cause fatigue

And insomnia. As I stated, week four did not present any symptoms that could be linked with my primary diagnosis of diabetes. Week five symptoms of memory loss and glutamate did not link any symptoms with my primary diagnosis either. However, cortisol does have some association with glutamate due to Glutamate being a powerful excitatory neurotransmitter that releases by the nerve cells in the brain. Diabetes is not really linked to memory loss, however its stated that in order for the brain to maintain normal function it needs a constant supple of glucose from the blood. Week six symptoms concluded my diagnosis of diabetes due to the symptoms presented. Hypertension can be an associated with an underlying condition, in this case, its diabetes, as I stated when diabetes is uncontrolled other issues like hypertension can occur due to high sugar levels causing hardening of the coronary arteries, this symptom is linked to week one symptoms of obesity as well. Hypertension can eventually lead to heart disease which would cause issues like a higher resting heart rate or abnormal heartbeat. Hypertensive retinopathy is a condition that causes damage to the eyes due to diabetes. Once again if the body has high sugar levels it will damage the small vessels in the retina causes vision problems a possibly permanent blindness. Statistics Say that individuals with uncontrolled diabetes will at some point develop heart disease, neuropathy, hypertensive retinopathy, insulin resistance, obesity, and kidney dysfunction. With the conclusion of my diagnosis diabetes is a dangerous condition to develop if not controlled.

 

References

https://visioneyeinstitute.com.au/eyematters/hypertensive-retinopathy/. (n.d.). Retrieved from   https://visioneyeinstitute.com.au/eyematters/hypertensive-retinopathy/.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/symptoms-causes/syc-20373410. (n.d.). Retrieved from   https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/symptoms-causes/syc-20373410.

Jovinelly, J. (2018, Febuary 18). https://www.healthline.com/health/type-2-diabetes/hypertension.   Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/.

 

 

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https://herzing.blackboard.com/images/ci/ng/avatar_150.gifSamantha Dieken 

Unit 7

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·

Is the high resting heart rate, intermittent arrhythmia and high blood pressure associated with the increased catecholamine production of the adrenal medulla? Rationalize and explain your answer.

Yes, catecholamines are hormones that actually increase heart rate, blood pressure, rate of breathing and the available energy amount in the body. The increased catecholamine production caused the cardio symptoms shown above. Catecholamines cause the physiological changes to the body in a fight or flight response, when more catecholamines are released, the more your body get prepared to fight or flee, either decision, your body increased heart rate, tachycardia which could be the arrhythmia because it is very common in high stress/anxiety moments and happen when your heart rate is high due to anxiety, exercise, and some underlying health issues. The increased production of fight or flight hormones (catecholamines) can be and probably is directly related to the cardiac issues above. High blood sugar levels can cause rapid heartbeat and palpitations.

·

Would hypertensive retinopathy be associated with an acute or chronic disease state? Explain your answer.

I believe it is linked to a chronic disease in this case, due to the diagnosis that I believe it is. I believe the diagnosis is still type 2 diabetes. The hypertensive retinopathy would be associated to type 2 diabetes because prolonged high blood pressure and high glucose levels overtime, can weaken and damage the blood vessels in the retina, and cause diabetic retinopathy (which is hypertensive retinopathy for diabetics). The risk for diabetic retinopathy increases the longer the person has diabetes. Up to 45% of people diagnosed with diabetes is diagnosed with some stage of diabetic retinopathy. For this, I believe it would be associated with a chronic disease.

·

What is your final diagnosis? Has your diagnosis changed from previous weeks? Rationalize and explain how and why you have arrived at your final diagnosis?

My final diagnosis is type 2 diabetes and has not changed from previous weeks. I did think it was diabetes associated with cushing’s syndrome, but not enough evidence for me to completely believe that is it cushing’s syndrome. I looked into each symptoms of what it could be linked to and more than half could be linked to type 2 diabetes.

 

In week 1, the symptoms that relate to type 2 diabetes are:

Insulin resistance: When you have type 2 diabetes your body doesn’t use insulin properly and causes insulin resistance. Over time your pancreas isn’t able to keep up and doesn’t make enough insulin, so your blood glucose levels will not be normal.

Cardiometabolic dysfunction: People with type 2 diabetes are at a higher risk for cardiometabolic and cardiovascular disease which would lead me to think that because of the insulin resistance, high blood pressure and high glucose levels, that this would be related to type 2 diabetes.

Abdominal obesity: Obesity is one of the most important and common causes of type 2 diabetes along with insulin resistance, these two symptoms together make me believe it is all associated with the same disease, T2D.

Elevated triglyceride levels: High TG levels increase risk of type 2 diabetes along with stroke, and heart disease. Other symptoms of high TG in diabetic patients include high blood sugar, high blood pressure, abdominal obesity and low HDL. Abdominal obesity and low HDL levels were also symptoms in week one that could be associated directly to T2D.

Short telomere length: Studies have shown that shorter telomere length is related to insulin resistance and obesity, which are two major symptoms in T2D. There is growing evidence in support of association between short telomeres and T2D.

 

Week two symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes:

Increased ROS: In type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance increases ROS production from free fatty acids. Increased ROS in type 2 diabetes is a major sign in the development of diabetic complications. Chronic reductive stress leads to oxidative stress which can be traced back tohyperglycemia, which is a major symptom and important sign in type 2 diabetes.

Increased LDH,CK,AST, and ALT: Abnormal liver function tests may predict type 2 diabetes. Given that the liver helps maintain normal blood glucose, when insulin resistance is present, liver enzymes may increase, people with T2D have a higher production of liver enzymes than people without T2D.

Rash on neck/face: I believe that this rash is Acanthosis nigricans, a skin disorder associated with diabetes. This rash like disorder is found in folds of the body such as the neck, it is an indicator for insulin resistance and diabetes. Acanthosis nigricans (AN) occur when the epidermal skin cells reproduce rapidly which is triggered by high levels of insulin in the blood. Your insulin levels gets high to make up for it, but eventually becomes low and insulin resistance occurs, which causes T2D.

Hair loss: Diabetes itself can lead to hair loss, but stress from living with a chronic illness can also cause hair loss. The hair loss could be linked to T2D but also linked to adrenal fatigue, which is when the adrenal glands are overworked and produce more adrenaline and cortisoland eventually make those levels higher than normal, which could make you lose hair.

 

Week three symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes:

Increased cortisol levels: Long term elevated cortisol levels consistently produces glucose, which leads to increased blood sugar levels.Ongoing insulin resistance and high blood sugar levels, this can lead to T2D.

Decreased BMD: Studies have shown that elevated cortisol levels is associated to decrease in BMD. High cortisol levels can be caused by insulin resistance which is a major cause of T2D. I believe the elevated cortisol levels may have caused the decreased BMD.

Week four symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes:

Increased muscle pain, fatigue, insomnia, and altered mood: The increased muscle pain can be caused by diabetic neuropathy, a complication due to diabetes that results in nerve damage that could show pain in your arms or legs and often mistaken as muscle pain. Fatigue is often a symptom that people with diabetes show due to high blood sugar. Insomnia is common in diabetics diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy, for it may be painful and make it hard to sleep due to the pain. Without sleep, it may increase high blood sugar and make diabetic symptoms to increase. Diabetes may cause mood swings due to stress and fluctuating blood sugar levels.

Systemic muscle atrophy associated with disuse: Insulin resistance can increase muscle protein breakdown by suppressing PI3K, which are enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth. When PI3K is suppressed, it accelerates muscle protein degradation and causes muscle atrophy.

 

Week five symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes:

Increased Glutamate production: High liver enzymes along with insulin resistance can be a cause of high glutamate levels. High glutamate levels could also be associated with the low BMD symptoms, and muscle atrophy. Long term high glutamate levels may accelerate damage of the pancreatic cells that produce insulin and cause insulin resistance. All of which are associated and linked to diabetes.

Memory Loss: Insulin resistance can cause brain cells to be damaged and cause memory loss. People need insulin to keep our brain cells healthy, without insulin the cells will be damaged. High blood sugar levels over the years can damage nerves as well, making diabetics at risk of dementia, due to the damaged nerves.

 

Week six symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes:

Increased production of Substance P and nociceptive impulses in the PNS: Substance P may play a part in the fibromyalgia symptom for it is released when there is pain or damage. Substance P is shown to be elevated in diabetic patients with diabetic neuropathy, for it is damaged nerves, meaning substance p would increase along with nociceptive impulses in the PNS because they work together in receiving and processing pain signals.

 

CONCLUSION: I believe the diagnosis is type 2 diabetes.

REFERENCES:

http://clinical.diabetesjournals.org/content/diaclin/23/3/115.full.pdf

https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/other-conditions/diabetes-warning-signs

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/acanthosis-nigricans/…/syc-20368983

https://www.healthline.com/health/does-diabetes-cause-hair-loss

1.

7 Common Adrenal Fatigue Symptoms (And How To Treat Them!)

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/317458.php

https://www.everydayhealth.com/type-2-diabetes/why-does-type-2-diabetes-make-you-f…

https://www.healthline.com/health/diabetes/leg-pain-cramps-treatment

https://academic.oup.com/endo/article/147/9/4160/2528321

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20823674

https://www.selfhacked.com/blog/glutamate/

https://www.diabetes.co.uk/diabetes-complications/diabetes-and-memory-loss.html https://www.webmd.com/diabetes/features/type-2-diabetes-memory

https://wolterskluwer.com/company/newsroom/news/2017/07/substance-p-in-tears%E2%80%94a-noninvasive-test-for-diabetes-related-nerve-damage.html

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13 minutes ago

https://herzing.blackboard.com/images/ci/ng/avatar_150.gifJennifer Parker 

RE: Unit 7 Unidentified Condition: Adrenalin, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Hypertensive Retinopathy

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The adrenal medulla secretes catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine). The catecholamines help prepare the individual to deal with emergency situations. The major disorder of the adrenal medulla is pheochromocytoma, a neoplasm characterized by excessive catecholamine secretion.   Pheochromocytomas are tumors of the adrenal gland that produce excess adrenaline. Pheochromocytomas arise from the central portion of the adrenal gland, which is called the adrenal medulla. The adrenal medulla is responsible for the normal production of adrenaline, which our body requires to help maintain blood pressure and to help cope with stressful situations. A tumor that arises from the adrenal medulla and overproduces adrenaline can be a deadly tumor because of the severe elevation in blood pressure it causes.

Hypertension (HTN), or chronic abnormally high blood pressure, is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. It affects nearly 50 million Americans and two-thirds of the population above age 65.  The pathogenesis of HTN is complex. Genetic predisposition, excess salt intake and adrenergic tone all play key roles in the development of HTN. But, other factors, such as obesity and race, have also been shown to influence the development of the disease.   Hypertension is insidious among Americans and is a leading cause of annual morbidity and mortality associated with cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease. Persistent high blood pressure leads to organ damage and affects the brain, heart, kidneys and eyes.  Myriad ophthalmic vascular changes occur in response to both acute and chronic elevated blood pressure, and often affect the retina and choroid (see Ocular Manifestations of Hypertension). Because ophthalmic vascular changes may be warning signs of organ damage associated with HTN, optometrists play a critical role in diagnosing and comanaging hypertensive patients.

Your body produces a surge of hormones when you’re in a stressful situation. These hormones temporarily increase your blood pressure by causing your heart to beat faster and your blood vessels to narrow. There’s no proof that stress by itself causes long-term high blood pressure. I feel that stress played a huge role in all of the symptoms and diagnoses.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/stress-and-high-blood-pressure/art-20044190

https://www.reviewofoptometry.com/article/hypertension-more-than-meets-the-eye

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pheochromocytoma/symptoms-causes/syc-20355367

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10 hours ago

Vera Waters

RE:

Unit

7

Unidentified

Condition:

Adrenalin,

Heart

Rate,

Blood

Pressure,

Hypertensive

Retinopathy

COLLAPSE

This

week’s

current

sympt

oms

of

adrenaline

:

Increased

epinephrine

(catecholamine

production)

from

the

adrenal

medulla.

Heart

Rate

:

Increased

resting

heart

rate

with

intermittent

bursts

of

arrhythmia.

Blood

Pressure

:

Systemic

hypertension

reported

over

the

past

8

months,

Hypertensiv

e

Retinopathy

:

arteriolar

constriction,

vascular

wall

changes,

cotton

wool

spots,

yellow

hard

exudates,

and

optic

disk

edema.

The

first

question

of

if

increased

catecholamine

production

causes

a

high

resting

heart

rate,

high

blood

pressure,

and

arrhyth

mia.

With

the

research

I

conducted

it

states

that

catecholamine

hypertension

is

high

blood

pressure

that

is

caused

by

catecholamine

(epinephrine

and

norepinephrine.

These

symptoms

are

produced

when

the

body

is

under

stress.

Adrenal

tumors

that

secrete

cate

cholamine

can

increase

blood

pressure

as

well

as

medication

containing

catecholamine.

With

this

information,

I

would

say

“yes”

catecholamine

can

be

associated

with

the

symptoms

of

high

blood

pressure,

arrhythmia,

and

a

high

resting

heart

rate.

The

reasons

being

is

that

when

the

body

goes

through

an

ordeal

like

an

intense

workout

a

panic

attack

or

an

illness

this

increased

symptom

can

occur

causing

a

fast

heart

rate

or

high

blood

pressure.

The

interesting

fact

about

this

symptom

is

that

it

can

contribute

to

high

blood

pressure

however

it

is

stated

that

and

recommended

that

with

individuals

with

hypertension

or

prehypertension

working

out

is

essential

in

better

control

over

hypertension

and

overall

heart

all

heart

health.

Would

hypertensive

retinopathy

be

associated

with

an

acute

or

chronic

disease?

High

blood

pressure

is

a

condition

that

will

put

an

individual

at

risk

for

the

development

of

some

health