Hospital-Acquired Infections

Running head: HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS

HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS

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Hospital-Acquired Infections

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Hospital acquired infections (HAIs), which is also known as nosocomial infections or health-care associated infections, are infections that are contracted because of a toxin and infection that exists in a certain locationscertain locations such as hospital. For infections to qualify as HAIs, they should not be present in patients before they are under medical care. Statistics indicate about one in ten patients are admitted to hospital will contract a hospital-acquired infection, and these numbers may be poised to grow as medical care becomes more complicated and antibiotic resistance in patients increase (Monegro, & Regunath, 2017). And while While HAIs are commonly present in the intensive care units where serious diseases are normally treated, it does not mean that they cannot be contained. Indeed, HAIs, which are caused by bacteria 90% of the time, and fungus and viruses to a smaller degree, can be prevented in a lot of healthcare situations, thereby minimizing the lethal risks they portend to the numerous patients in hospitals who have compromised immune systems (Stubblefield, 2016). Comment by lilia:

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CDC (2018) estimates that one in 25 American hospital patients contract a hospital-acquired nosocomial infection every day. These infections include central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, surgical site infections such as those related to abdominal and colon surgeries, hospital acquired pneumonia, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Monegro and Regunath (2017) explain that the risks of acquiring HAIs are dependent on the immune system statuses of patients, the infection control practices that the health facility has instituted in place, and the prevalence of the infectious pathogens in the local community. When the patient is older, has stayed longer in hospital, has multiple underlying chronic illnesses, and frequent encounters with healthcare facilities, then they are at a higher risk of contracting HAIs. Other risk factors include recent invasive procedures, immunosuppression, mechanical ventilatory support, the presence of indwelling devices, as well as a stay in a critical care unit (Monegro, & Regunath, 2017).

HAIs can be diagnosed by doctors by sight and symptoms. Symptoms can be wound discharge, headache, cough, fever, and shortness of breath, Urinary Tract Infections, or difficulty urinating, and even diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea. Given the fact that bacterial infection, fungi, and viruses spreads through person-to-person contact, unwashed hands & even medical instruments such as respiratory machines and catheters can contribute to infection. SoSo, can excessivesexcessive and improper use of antibiotics, which leads to the creation of superbugs or bacteria which are resistant to multiple antibiotics (Stubblefield, 2016). Comment by lilia: Comment by lilia:

Solution

Prevention and control of HAIs, given the mortality, morbidity. and increased length of cost and stay they bring about, shall be prioritized so that hospitals are made as safe as possible. Hospitals can act to control these infections by assessing the need for isolation of patients so as toto either reduce their chances of acquiring infections or minimize their chances of potentially transmitting them to other patients and staff. Hand hygiene should also be emphasized, and protective clothing or gear such as gloves, gowns, and masks or face shields should be worn at all timesalways, while rooms should be kept well ventilated. Other than these general measures for infection control, hospitals can also implement specific ones for different subsets of patients such as burn patients, immunodeficient and transplant recipients, or even those for whom catheters have been indicated so as toto better guard against having them acquire further complications arising from HAIs (Mehta et al., 2014). Comment by lilia: Comment by lilia:

References

CDC. (2018). Healthcare-associated infections. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Website: https://www.cdc.gov/hai/surveillance/index.html

Mehta, Y., Gupta, A., Todi, S., Myatra, S.N., Samaddar, D.P., Patil, V., Bhattacharya, P.K., & Ramasubban, S. (2014). Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections. Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine, 18(3), 149-163. Doi: 10.4103/0972-5229.128705

Monegro, A.F., & Regunath, H. (2017). Hospital acquired infections. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing. PMID: 28722887

Stubblefield, H. (2016). What are nosocomial infections? Healthline. Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health/hospital-acquired-nosocomial-infections