Inductive/deductive reasoning

DR. Von mizener

EDOL 631 4

Advanced Organizer Week 4 class outline

Theorists of IQ

Midterm discussion

Ability grouping

Forming Concepts

Inductive/deductive reasoning

Heuristics/Fallicious reasoning

Assignments Due Dates

Week 4 class goals

Be able to answer the questions: What is intelligence? Is intelligence caused by genes or environment?

Obtain specific tools for how teachers can adapt to differences in intelligence and improve student intelligence?

How do children/students learn and organize their knowledge about concepts?

What are the main kinds of reasoning?

What errors in reasoning are made?

How can we help students transfer knowledge/skills?

activity- Theorists of IQ

Sternberg

Gardner

Cattell and Horn

Basics

What are some teaching implications of each?

Empirical evidence for either?

4

Content – Cattell and horn

General ability (g)

Two major subfactors –

Fluid v. crystallized intelligence

ability to understand abstract and often novel concepts which requires us to think flexibly and to seek out new patterns.

puzzles

accumulation of knowledge which is measured by tests of vocabulary and general information.

Word knowledge

Used in part by many contemporary IQ tests (SB5, WJ-III)

Content – Gardner

8 distinct/independent intelligences

Linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist….

implications:

take broad view of what constitutes intelligence

Appreciate underrepresented intelligences

Diversify instruction

Content – sternberg

Sternberg – 3 independent/distinct aspects

Analytical abilities

Creative abilities

Practical abilities (adapt to, shape, and select environment)

Implications:

Focus on the practical as well as the academic aspects of intelligence

Make the most of our strengths; live with or improve upon weaknesses

Experts are not good at everything!

Evidence – has been tested; but is very broad

Content – Heritability / modifiability

May be no clear answer to these questions

Genetic and environmental contributions

Heritability coefficient: 0 to 1

extent to which individual differences on a measure are genetically determined

i.e, height – heritability of more than 0.9

.6 to .8

Flynn Effect

Gene-environment interaction – genetic expression depends on environment

Content – reaction range

reaction range – upper/lower limits determined genetically

Exact functioning within range depends on environment

Individual/student can be provided with experiences to shape exact level of intelligence within predetermined limits

GROUP ACTIVITY Ability grouping

Within-class grouping (A)

Between-class grouping (B)

Regrouping (C)

EXAMPLES From your work/training?

Learning Styles

Preferences or needs for learning conditions

Within-class and regrouping are considered most successful – more room fore flexibility; more limited – not all day every day grouping.

10

Content – creativity

Creativity

Convergent vs divergent

Intrinsic vs extrinsic

Content – critical thinking

CRITICAL THINKING _

Conscious and purposeful – solution focused

vs. automatic/mindless

Content – features of concepts

CONCEPTS

Concepts are mental categories of similar things/ideas

Features of concepts

Defining

Necessary and sufficient

Characteristic feature

Property typical but not always associated

Examples?

Prototype –most representative instance

Exemplar – highly typical

Content – REASONING

Deductive vs. inductive

Deductive – top down – general to specific

Inductive – specific to general

Syllogisms: logical deductive arguments

Way to practice deductive arguments

One piece of information is inferred from another

Conclusion is inferred from the premise

Conditional –

If-then

Cannot be reversed

activity- syllogism

If students don’t pay attention, they will miss key points that will be on the exam

If students miss key points, they will do poorly on the exam

If students don’t pay attention, they will do poorly on the exam.

What type of syllogism is this?????

Conditional

list of conditional statements that lead us from the hypothesis of “a cable company puts you on hold” to a final conclusion of “ending up in a roadside ditch.”

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VOvrJFZ8DtU

CONTENT Fallacious reasoning / fallacies

When we use inductive inferences, we prone to hasty generalizations…. How do we avoid this?

Fallacies – misuse of heuristics

Heuristics (speculative shortcuts in thinking / mental shortcuts when making judgments)

We estimate the likelihood of an event by comparing it to an existing prototype that already exists in our minds

Why do we use heuristics???? often efficient and low demand on cognitive energy

Availability – ease of what comes to mind / readily available

Representativeness –fits stereotype

Activity – Type of Heuristic???

After seeing several television programs on shark attacks, you start to think that such incidences are relatively common. When you go on vacation, you refuse to swim in the ocean because you believe the probability of a shark attack is high.

After reading an article about lottery winners, you start to overestimate your own likelihood of winning the jackpot. You start spending more money than you should each week on lottery tickets.

If I meet someone with a laid back attitude and long hair, I might assume they are more likely to be Californian, whereas someone who is very polite but rigid may be assumed to be English.

http://psychology.about.com/od/aindex/g/availability-heuristic.htm

availability

17

ACTIVITY – heuristics

Consider the following description:

Sarah loves to listen to New Age music and faithfully reads her horoscope each day. In her spare time, she enjoys aromatherapy and attending a local spirituality group.

Is Sarah more likely to be a school teacher or a holistic healer?

http://psychology.about.com/od/rindex/g/representativeness-heuristic.htm

Activity, cont.

Many people would identify her as a holistic healer based on representativeness. She fits in with our existing ideas of how a holistic healer might behave. In reality, it is far more likely that Sarah is actually a school teacher based purely on probability. School teachers are far more common than holistic healers.

http://psychology.about.com/od/rindex/g/representativeness-heuristic.htm

Content – transfer of info

HEURISTICS cont……

Overconfidence

Underconfidence

Which describes you you? Why?

Transfer

Low-road vs. high road transfer

Conscious thought vs. spontaneous? Reflective thinking vs. automatic?

Examples of each?

Reflections Q/A?

Review -Week 4 class goals

Be able to answer the questions: What is intelligence? Is intelligence caused by genes or environment?

Obtain specific tools for how teachers can adapt to differences in intelligence and improve student intelligence?

How do children/students learn and organize their knowledge about concepts?

What are the main kinds of reasoning?

What errors in reasoning are made?

How can we help students transfer knowledge/skills?

Assignments/Due dates

mid-term – released shortly after class tonight

50 MC items

Allow 2 uninterrupted hours – 120 minutes timed

OPEN BOOK /NOTE/ PPT format

No way to monitor who uses what so you are free to use any course resources

Must be finished before class next week/ no late tests accepted

If you have accommodations, please let me know

Most concepts discussed in class – some were not

DB 5 post – review requirements