Negotation and conflict Resolution Quiz

The less concrete and measurable goals are:

Select one:

a. the harder it is to communicate to the other party what we want

b. the easier it is to understand what your opponent wants

c. the easier it is to determine whether a particular outcome satisfies our goals

d. the harder it is to restate what the initial goal was

e. all of the above

Interests can be:

Select one:

a. substantive, directly related to the focal issues under negotiation

b. process based, related to the manner in which we settle this dispute

c. relationship based, tied to the current or desired future relationship between the parties

d. based in the intangibles of the negotiation

e. all of the above

A unilateral choice is one that is made with the active involvement of the other party.

Select one:

True

False

It is important to set priorities and possibly assign points for both tangible and intangible issues.

Select one:

True

False

It is sufficient to learn about the other party’s interests and resources.

Select one:

True

False

The negotiators’ past relationship will affect current behavior if the parties

Select one:

a. have been previously competitive.

b. have been previously cooperative.

c. feel indebted to one another.

d. hold grudges toward one another.

e. The negotiators’ past relationship will affect current behavior under all of the above conditions.

An individual who confuses private ethics with business morality does not make an effective negotiator.

Select one:

True

False

When using the “intimidation” tactic to detect deception, one should

Select one:

a. emphasize the futility and impending danger associated with continued deceit.

b. lie to the other to make them believe you have uncovered their deception.

c. play down the significance of any deceptive act.

d. make a “no-nonsense” accusation of the other.

e. None of the above actions would be used as part of the intimidation tactic

Which was not one of the findings of a recent study?

Select one:

a. If told to “do your best,” partied reported less honestly than if they had a specific goal to meet

b. Participants who had to meet specific goals were more likely to overstate their productivity than those without

c. Participants who had to meet specific goals were more likely to overstate their success when their actual performance was closer to the goal

d. Participants who had to meet specific goals were more likely to overstate in those situations where they thought they “deserved” the reward based on overall productivity

The fundamental questions of ethical conduct arise only when we negotiate in distributive bargaining situations.

Select one:

True

False

The irrational escalation of commitment bias refers to

Select one:

a. the standard against which subsequent adjustments are measured during negotiation.

b. the perspective or point of view that people use when they gather information and solve problems.

c. how easily information can be recalled and used to inform or evaluate a process of a decision.

d. a negotiator’s commitment to a course of action, even when that commitment constitutes irrational behavior on his/her part.

e. None of the above refer to irrational escalation of commitment.

The Endowment Effect

Select one:

a. is making attributions to the person or the situation.

b. is drawing conclusions from small sample sizes.

c. is negotiators believing that their ability to be correct or accurate is greater than actually true.

d. is the tendency to overvalue something you own or believe you possess.

If perceptual distortions and initial assumptions are correct, then negotiators may not be able to reverse their effects.

Select one:

True

False

An insight drawn from research of the frames negotiators use in disputes would suggest that parties discussing salary may be likely to use outcome frames and may be related to which of the following?

Select one:

a. Negotiators can use more than one frame.

b. Mismatches in frames between parties are sources of conflict.

c. Particular types of frames may led to particular types of agreements.

d. Specific frames may be likely to be used with certain types of issues.

e. Parties are likely to assume a particular frame because of various factors.

The distinction between mood and emotion is based on which of the following characteristics?

Select one:

a. specificity

b. intensity

c. duration

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

Mitigating circumstances occur where negotiators explain their positions from a broader perspective, suggesting that while their current position may appear negative it derives from positive motives.

Select one:

True

False

Which of the following are types of manageable questions?

Select one:

a. close-out questions that force the other party into seeing things your way

b. leading questions that point toward an answer

c. impulse questions that occur “on the spur of the moment,” without planning

d. loaded questions that put the other party on the spot regardless of his/her answer

e. None of the above are types of manageable questions.

Sitkin and Bies suggest that negotiators who use multiple explanations are more likely to have better outcomes and that the negative effects of poor outcomes can be mitigated by communicating explanations for them.

Select one:

True

False

Define exonerating circumstances.

Select one:

a. Negotiators suggest that they had no choice in taking the positions they did.

b. Negotiators explain their positions from a broader perspective, suggesting that while their current position may appear negative it derives from positive motives.

c. Outcomes can be explained by changing the context.

d. Negotiators who use multiple explanations are more likely to have better outcomes.

e. None of the above can define exonerating circumstances.

Encoding can be defined as

Select one:

a. the facts, ideas, feelings, reactions, or thoughts that exist within individuals and act as a set of filters for interpreting the decoded messages.

b. the process by which messages are put into symbolic form.

c. the process of translating messages from their symbolic form into a form that makes sense.

d. the process by which the receiver reacts to the sender’s message.

e. Decoding can be defined as all of the above

Incidences in cheating in the Boston Marathon included all but one motive. Which one was not identified as a motive for cheating in the race?

Select one:

a. Some cheaters were angry or disturbed.

b. Some cheaters were seeking family approval.

c. Some cheaters were middle-aged males.

d. Some cheaters were after recognition.

e. Some cheaters were simply “caught up in the moment.”

Proponents of personalistic ethics argue that

Select one:

a. the best way to achieve the greatest good is to closely follow a set of rules and principles.

b. the worth of a particular action is judged on the basis of the consequences it produces.

c. societies, organizations and cultures determine what is ethically appropriate and acceptable within that group.

d. everyone ought to decide for themselves what is right based on their conscience.

e. Rule utilitarians argue all of the above

The concept of “duty ethics” states that

Select one:

a. the rightness of an action is determined by evaluating the pros and cons of its consequences.

b. the rightness of an action is determined by existing laws and contemporary social standards that define what is right and wrong and where the line is.

c. the rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community.

d. the rightness of an action is based on one’s conscience and moral standards.

e. None of the above defines “duty ethics.”

The concept of “personalistic ethics” states that the rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community.

Select one:

True

False

Machiavellianism appears to be a very weak predictor of ethical conduct.

Select one:

True

False

Halo effects occur when

Select one:

a. attributes are assigned to an individual solely on the basis of his or her membership in a particular social or demographic group.

b. people generalize about a variety of attributes based on the knowledge of one attribute of an individual.

c. the perceiver singles out certain information that supports or reinforces a prior belief, and filters out information that does not confirm that belief.

d. people ascribe to others the characteristics or feelings that they possess themselves.

e. All of the above describe halo effects.

Parties are likely to assume a particular frame because of one factor.

Select one:

True

False

The definition of issues at stake in a negotiation may not change as the discussion evolves.

Select one:

True

False

Projection occurs when

Select one:

a. attributes are assigned to an individual solely on the basis of his or her membership in a particular social or demographic group.

b. people generalize about a variety of attributes based on the knowledge of one attribute of an individual.

c. the perceiver singles out certain information that supports or reinforces a prior belief, and filters out information that does not confirm that belief.

d. people ascribe to others the characteristics or feelings that they possess themselves.

e. All of the above describe projection.

In which type of frame would parties be more likely to engage primarily in distributive (win-lose or lose-lose) negotiations than in other types?

Select one:

a. Identity

b. Loss-gain

c. Outcome

d. Process

e. Substantive

High levels of language intensity are used to convey strong feelings in the recipient, while low intensity conveys weak feelings.

Select one:

True

False

Which of the following is not one of the five linguistic dimensions of making threats?

Select one:

a. the use of polarized language

b. the conveyance of verbal immediacy

c. the degree of lexical diversity

d. the extent of low-power language style

e. All of the above are elements of the five linguistic dimensions of making threats.

Manageable questions cause difficulty, give information, and bring the discussion to a false conclusion.

Select one:

True

False

Research supports which conclusion about role reversal?

Select one:

a. Role reversal is effective in producing cognitive changes but not attitude changes.

b. When parties’ positions are fundamentally compatible with one another, role reversal is likely to produce better results.

c. When parties’ positions are fundamentally incompatible; role reversal may dull the perceptions of incompatibility.

d. Role reversal leads to easier resolutions of conflict, particularly when accurate communication reveals a fundamental incompatibility in the positions of the two sides.

e. All of the above conclusions are supported by research.

Questions can be used to

Select one:

a. manage difficult or stalled negotiations.

b. pry or lever a negotiation out of a breakdown or an apparent dead end.

c. assist or force the other party to face up to the effects or consequences of their behaviors.

d. collect and diagnose information.

e. Questions can be used for all of the above.