D2 Summer 2018
Outline of Complete Research Proposal 1
RACE AND CRIME 5
a. Topic introduction and context.
Racial discrimination, which is the way of targeting accused based on race prominence, could be responsible for the increase in rate of crime arrest. Subcultural theorists argue that poor people, also referred to as have-nots, normally reside in areas where the social respect is subject to violence and physical strength and this habit promote crime. More to this, race impacts who gets arrested, and some pieces of evidence show that minorities are disproportionate form crime statistics (Walker, Spohn, & DeLone, 2012). It is official that high rates of arrest, conviction, and incarceration of these minorities may be as a result of criminal justice actors. It is interesting to note that race and social stratification are related in the aspect that nonwhite form lower class and this poorer class lack the genuine ways to obtain goods and they choose to join crime.
Physical injury and death are grouped as homicide, and known as the biggest cause of death amongst the youths. According to the “U.S Public health” brutality is a chief health issues which is challenging the Americans. Crime is intertwined with acts of violence. Secondly, crime is associated with loss, such as vandalism, arson, and environmental destruction. Crimes also pose economic cost through expense linked with transfer of property through robbery, during crime, criminal violence brings about additional medical cost of attending to the victims. There is another form of cost: cost of protection, which includes funds used to guard dogs and surveillance systems. According to studies, race has a huge impact on crime, thus scientists and scholars have tried to uncover what triggers people with different skin color to engage in criminal acts. All these implications make it important to study the relation of race to crime with a mind of reducing the cost.
c. Research question and hypothesis.
Arguably, black people are more likely to engage in criminal activities than white people. Does this stereotype have any relevance to it? A black man in the US today has three times a higher chance of going to prison as well. There has to be a relationship that supports both statements. Comment by Microsoft Office User: State your hypothesis clearly.
d. Proposed research design
The research will use data collected by different institution to evaluate the relationship between crime and race. It will describe offending action of different races within the sample population and this will be used for descriptive purpose. Second, the explanation will predict race pattern in relation to crime. The analysis builds on existing records of crime documenting racial pattern. Comment by Microsoft Office User: How will the data be collected for analysis? Existing statistics?
The remainder of this research paper stereotypes the concerning issue of race in relation to crime. To what extent are blacks and other races associated with crime? How has stereotype affect issue of crime in minority? To answer these question, the research will involve the Stratified Sampling method because the different racial groups will be highlighted within the population.
2. Literature Review
It is said that men and youth have extreme crime rate and it is appreciated that certain racial groups more so the blacks have higher crime rate compared to whites. In particular, pieces of research shows that African American and the Latinos have advanced street offenses compared to white. For instance, although African American form 13% of America population, they account for 39% of all arrests made for violent crime (Unnever & Gabbidon, 2011)
· Existing Research
1) Research by (Yeisley & Krebs, 2018) used of information from “Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Crime Victims Survey (NCVS), to investigate the relationship between race and crime.
1. Hypothesis: Blacks and Hispanic engage in criminal activities more than their white counterparts.
2. Theoretical framework: Moreover, these researcher used information from Add Health to investigate ethnic difference and race in violence. Comment by Microsoft Office User: What theoretical assumptions were the basis for this study?
3. Independent and dependent variable measurement: the dependent variable in this research is crime while independent variable is race.
4. Key findings: The research’s finding indicates that African Americans and Hispanics have higher chances of involvement in crime compared to Whites. Secondly, the research supports the idea that the difference in crime can be explained using a variation in community disadvantage that aims for African Americans. Thirdly, it was established that the difference between minority in violence (Hispanics and Blacks) was not evident.
2) Study by (Butler, 2010) used self-records to determine the connection between race and crime.
· Research question: Why do Blacks report more incidences of crime in the US
· Theoretical framework: The research has a slight agreement in self-reports and police data for blacks. The three finding link race to poverty among the minority.
· Key finding: Black people do not report incidences of crime as readily as Whites do, and finally, although there is ethnic and racial differences between white and blacks, subjects with official contacts more often report crime.
3) The above pieces of research are supported by ( Ministry of Justice publication, 2014) who studied race in relation to crime in Chicago.
I. Theoretical framework: The statistics shows general, Black and Asian groups appear to be majority at most stages all over the crime scenes, unlike the White ethnic group imply that immigrants generation and neighborhood social context to greater extend have effect of crime demographic characteristics.
II. Research design: Data on number of arrest based on race.
III. Key findings: the researcher discovered that the chance of crime activities were 85.0% more for blacks paralleled to their white neighbor, whereas Latino crime rate was approximately 10% less. The research also found out that 60% of the crime committed by the blacks can be attributed to marital status of involved parents.
4) According to research by (Cherry, 2017), Latinos and African American are poorer compared to whites on ordinary case and this poverty adds to increase in crime level.
· Theoretical framework: From this position, it can be argued that the reason why the minority commits crimes at a higher rate is because of the increase in poverty and the subsequent ethnic segregation (McCarthy & Hagan, 2003).
· Key finding: It was found that these group of minorities live in urban areas which is a contributing factor to advanced crime rates. Third, the ethnic prejudice, which the minorities encounter, lead to frustration and anger which in return promote criminal behavior.
5) According to (Quillian & Pager, 2001), 52% of white rated black as six in a scale of 1-10 of violence.
· Key finding: There is an evidence that links the African American race and brutality. Contrary to this view, studies shows that groups are less likely to evaluate favorably other races than their own. In Chicago, there is a higher perception of a close connection between Black adolescents and delinquency. This may not be correct.
· Research questions: Is the presence of the minority group (Black) linked to increase in crime? To what extent is race associated to crime in the neighborhood?
· Hypothesis: Presence of black men is associated with crime.
· Summary of the Existing Research
In appreciating the research finding on racial difference in street crime level, it is key to note that researchers believe that the White perpetrate most white-collar offenses and more so company crime because the white lead and manage these firms. By extension it can be stated that as social stratification affect the kind of crime that individuals commit, race also contribute to the nature of crime. The white, wealthy people do engage in crimes, but they are more likely to engage in corporate crimes (White Collar). As opposed, African Americans and Hispanics tend to rule the engagements of street crime. Comment by Microsoft Office User: This paragraph should provide the justification for the proposed study that follows – the theoretical basis, methodology, sampling technique, variables and how the findings of the proposed study will further this line of research.
Previous research is helpful in evaluating the different involvement of race in crimes. Perhaps the above pieces of research relied on aggregate data. Such type of research give useful though secondary proof about connection between crime and race. The aim of this paper is to arrive at enhanced perceptive on relationship between races and criminal actions.
I. Sampling design: The process of stratified sampling will lead to relative rate Index. Simply put, when data is sample the rate of ethnic group will be compared to determine where there is significant difference from each other. Comment by Microsoft Office User: This is unclear.
II. Population: This research will be based in a minimum of 20 objects and data pulled from the national statistics. Some of the main considerations will be: court decision, arrest, proceeding at magistrate law court, beliefs at magistrate court, plea at crown court, and proven reoffending. Comment by Microsoft Office User: 20 is a very small sample size if you are using existing statistics? Statistical analysis is not likely with a sample size of 20. What is your study population, sampling frame, unit of analysis?
Stratified sampling has the advantage of getting particular outcome instead of assumption. The data for stratified sampling will come from many management sources where data are extracted easily. The rate of crime will be determined at granular level from combined data based on age, ethnicity, sex and primary offence.
· Categories : The categories used will be ethnic groups (black, white and Asian) these ethnic group classification will possibly conceal complexities which may surface in more detailed ethnic level.
· Independent variable: The race of offenders
· Dependent variable: Number of time people engage in crime
In this research, the crimes to be highlighted are solely street crime, in which white collar crimes will be omitted. Institutionalized racism and crime will only be addressed as needed.
· Weakness: There is a threat in the finding because it relies on already collected information that has potential methodological errors. This imply the study could have used questionable statistic.
· Reliability: Comparatively this research finding is based on numbers in order to make it as reliable as it can possibly be.
References: Butler, P. (2010). One Hundred Years of Race and Crime. THE JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL LAW & CRIMINOLOGY, 100(3), 1043-1050. Cherry, R. (2017). Race and Rising Violent Crime. Retrieved August 06, 2018, from https://www.realclearpolicy.com/articles/2017/02/16/race_and_rising_violent_crime.html McCarthy, B., & Hagan, J. (2003). Sanction effects, violence, and native North American street youth. In Violent crime: Assessing race and ethnic differences (pp. 117–137). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ministry of Justice publication. (2014). Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2018, from Ministry of Justice publication: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/480250/bulletin.pdf Quillian, L., & Pager, D. (2001). Black Neighbors, Higher Crime? The Role of Racial Stereotypes in Evaluations of Neighborhood Crime. Retrieved from https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/pager/files/ajs_quillianpager.pdf Unnever, J. D., & Gabbidon, S. L. (2011). A theory of African American offending: Race, racism, and crime. New York, NY: Routledge. Walker, S., Spohn, C., & DeLone, M. (2012). The color of justice: Race, ethnicity, and crime in America. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Yeisley, M., & Krebs, C. P. (2018). Race And Crime. Retrieved August 6, 2018, from Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice: https://www.encyclopedia.com/law/legal-and-political-magazines/race-and-crime
This is a work in progress. Be sure to include a section on causality, ethics, reliability, and validity. Be sure to address the areas where I have commented. Keep it simple and be sure to do a thorough proofread/edit prior to final submission.