ACADEMIC ARGUMENT: RESEARCH PAPER 5

E2: Academic Research Paper

In this research paper, you will make an academic argument by researching and analyzing a topic you want to explore in depth.

Distinguishing features:

· Purpose:

· Problem-solution (cause, effect, action)

· Convince and persuade audience to take action

· Make an argument about future

· Length

· 8-10 pages

· Format

· APA (abstract/ subtitles or headings for different sections in the paper and references

· Sources

· At least 7 sources from the library databases

· 4 scholarly journal articles/ books

· Academic search complete

· JSTOR

· 3 credible article from other library databases

· Opposing viewpoints

· Issues and controversies

· CQ researcher

· Additional sources should be from credible sources only; no magazine, newspaper, media sources

· Topic:

· A significant topic you are curious about and want to explore in depth by applying one of the above purposes

· Also, review the “suggested topics” on page 2

· Structure

· Introduction

· Background information and context

· Significance of the topic

· Relevancy to the current national and/ or global issues and events

· Briefly define problem, causes, consequences

· Narrative

· Quotations

· Historical account

· Compare and contrast

· Thesis statement

· An argumentative statement: topic + argumentative claim and reasons

· Persuasive and convincing

· Problem-solution

· Argument about future

· Body paragraphs

· Developed body paragraphs focused on one central point you intend to argue and prove

· Argumentative topic sentence

· Context

· 2 pieces of evidence: summarized and/ or paraphrase; few direct quotations

· Analysis, significance, relevancy of evidence (refer to index of template if needed)

· Concluding sentence/ transition

· Conclusion

· Speculate about future

· Call your readers to action

· Reinforce any national/ global significance and relevancy

· Due dates:

· Annotated Bibliography due in drop box Tuesday, 10/23

· Thesis and outline Thursday 10/25

· Rough draft due in class Thursday 11/01

· Final draft due in drop box Tuesday, 11/06

· PowerPoint Presentations: Group I: Tuesday, 11/06

Group II: Thursday 11/08

Group III: Tuesday, 11/13

English 1302: Suggested Research topics

1. Women empowerment

2. Inspiring students with STEM education

3. Gun violence

4. Alternative energy

5. Mental disorder

6. PTST, ADHD, autism

7. 2nd hand smoking

8. Bullying/ cyber bullying

9. E-cigarette

10. Stem cell research

11. Head trauma in football/ soccer

12. Rehabilitation methods in sports (musclos keletal injury)

13. Pet therapy

14. Chemical in food products/ cleaning products

15. Art therapy

16. GMOs

17. Shortage of raw materials

18. Genetic abnormalities passed from one generation to another

19. Stem cell treatment

20. Capture and use carbon dioxide

21. Chemicals that trigger allergies

22. Genetic modification

23. Best chemical process of microbrewery of beer

24. Developing environmentally friendly plastics

25. Biocomputing and big data

26. Biomacromolecules

27. Nanotechnology and medical application

28. Diabetics control and blood sugar

29. Nano technology and cancer patients

30. Gene therapy

31. Flu vaccine and its effectiveness

32. Vaccination

33. Memory loss/ dementia/ Alzheimer’s disease and treatment

34. Artificial intelligence

35. Drones

36. Cyber attack

37. Sugar regulation in food industry

38. Connection between diet and life span

39. Antibiotic resistance

40. Which diet? Low fat? Low sugar? Low carbs?

41. Space exploration

42. Space junk

43. Endangered animals

44. Alternative economic system

45. Green buildings/ energy/ products

46. Offshore drilling

47. Hydraulic fracking

48. Robotics

49. Teacher retention

50. Substance abuse among teens/ youth

51. Challenges faced by minorities/ firs-generation college students/ ESOL students

52. Sexual harassment

53. Domestic violence

54. Violence against women

55. Juvenile justice

56. Prison reform/ alternative imprisonment

57. Anorexia

58. Outsourcing

59. Artificial sweetener

60. Performance enhancing steroids and human growth hormones (HGH)

61. Big box stores

62. Body image

63. Clean air act

64. Cloning

65. Education ranking/ quality in U.S.

66. DDT

67. Deepwater oil drilling

68. Energy efficiency

69. Environmental regulation

70. Freedom of speech

71. Fracking

72. Freedom of press

73. HPV vaccine

74. Pharmaceuticals

75. Racial profiling

76. Welfare

77. Corporate corruption

78. Factory farming

79. Digital currency

80. Food waste

81. Agricultural subsidies

82. Hazing

83. Reproductive technology

84. Renewable energy

85. Biofuels

86. Charter schools

87. Sexting

88. Child welfare

89. STEM education

90. Local food movement

91. Millennial generation

92. Deforestation

93. Cyber predators

94. Monopolies

95. Dietary supplements

96. Domestic surveillance

97. Domestic violence

98. Drug abuse

99. Nanotechnology

100. Veterans

Research paper rubric

APA format
Cover page
Font and font size
Indented and double space paragraphs
APA header and page number
Abstract
Global Concerns
Effective/ absorbing title
Introduction (background information on the problem)
Thesis: indicating the purpose of the paper
Developed, focused and argumentative paragraphs
Argumentative topic sentences
Context
Evidence (2) (few direct quotations and mostly summarized/ paraphrased evidence in APA)
Explanation/ analysis of evidence
Concluding sentence
conclusion
Argumentative and in-depth logical reasoning, explanations, analysis
Elaborating on and supporting thesis in every body paragraph with evidence, argumentative and logical supporting details, and analysis of details and evidence
Local concerns
word choice (no “wordy” phrases)
spelling, punctuation, and mechanics
No “you” and infrequent use of “I” and “be verbs”
Academic tone and conventions
APA in-text citation
References
Writing Center rough draft review

Technology and Education

Title

Name

School

Course

Professor

Date

Technology and Education

The advent of technology has been accompanied by a number of revolutions which cover all sectors of life such as health, manufacturing, and service industry. One of the affected areas in these categories is the education sector. There are a number of technologies that have been introduced in the education sector which include flipped classrooms, Chromebooks, and paper tab among many others. The young generation which is the newest generation also known as the k-12 has shown tremendous and active uptake when it comes to technology use in education and various aspects of life.

According to Green and Hannon (2007), the youthful generation has made technology a normal part of their lives. For instance, many students all over the world are utilizing new media technologies to come up with new things, new ways of communicating with people and this have led to the development of weird kind of thinking and operation among the students. However, the use of technology especially in education comes with a number of shortcomings.

The shortcomings greatly violate the characteristics that make a meaningful learning. For instance, the use of technology such as flipped classroom comes with one of the greatest disadvantages of using technology in education which is lack of interaction among the students (Koehler et al, 2009). For good education, the teachers should create an environment that incorporates collaborative learning within the classroom which then prepares the students to work and interaction which is the reality in the job market. The use of technology, therefore, denies the students the ability to work and interact with a group in order to share ideas and help each other in solving problems they face during their learning process.

Suppose in a class of fifty students, I would like to introduce the topic on HIV&AIDS and i.e. what is it and how does one contact. The students need to get a clear understanding of the issue at hand and even do some discussions on the topic. The fifty students are quite a big number hence the use of technology to reach the students will be a more effective way. The technology to be chosen has to be the one that allows my students to easily get and understand the topic that I will introduce. The main goal of the scenario is to get the students get an understanding of the topic of HIV and aids which is one of the most dangerous diseases in the world today.

The three technologies that are most appropriate for the educational setting and the scenario that had been previously introduced are the Chromebooks, video conferencing and the snag it. Chromebooks are almost the same as an iPad where students can download, read and store their class notes. When compared with the iPad the Chromebooks are preferable as they are cheaper, have One-button-push easy setup and have easy to control settings which make it more attractive. On the other hand, SnagIt is a screen that captures video software programs which makes it easy for online instructors to conduct online tutorials. The app can also be used by a teacher to correct a paper or demonstrate a math problem.

Lastly, video conferencing is a technology that creates a visual connection between people located in different places using high video and audio quality (Groff et al, 2008). In this case, this will apply if my students are located at different places. The main reason why these technologies can apply is their ease of use which will not cost students time and more effort due to complications.

References

Green, H, and Hannon, C, (2007), Their Space: Education for a digital generation. Retrieved from: http://www.demos.co.uk/files/Their%20space%20-%20web.pdf

Groff, J., & Haas, J. (2008). Groff, J., & Haas, J. (2008). Web 2.0: Today’s technology, tomorrow’s learning. Learning & Leading with Technology, September/October 2008

Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1). Retrieved from www.citejournal.org/vol9/iss1/general/article1.cfm

DESIGNING CURRICULUM 6

Title

Name

School

Course

Professor

Date

A Learning Management System supports a number of learning assets that can be used alongside it to facilitate learning. The four different learning assets that can be integrated in the LMS are videos, webinars, e-assessments and podcasts. Videos can be used in an LMS during training in a classroom. It is sometimes used as an integral part of e-learning as well as a means to address a single learning objective. Apart from being a tool that can be used for just-in-time learning, videos can be accessed through almost all devices, from PCs, smart phones and tablets meaning that they are easy to access. LMS can use live videos or those that have been recorded already (Vayuvegula, 2016).

Webinars are online seminars that are delivered by an expert on a matter in question using PowerPoint presentations. Thanks to the virtual conferencing software that is available nowadays, this is an excellent asset that can be used in an LMS (Ruben.et.al, 2015).

E-assessments are assessments or quiz that is done online and are a very convenient way that sis used to test the knowledge of students. They can be used before training to determine if students are ready for the training, during training as a tool for continuous assessment tests as well as after training to check for knowledge retention. They allow for multiple-choice questions testing scenario as well as the format that allows students to upload work that they have done. Such tools as adobe Captivate and Easy Test Maker are examples of tools that are used for these assessments.

Podcasts are files that are in audio form. Information in a PDF for example can be converted into podcast and used when someone is doing some other thing, such as driving (Vayuvegula, 2016).

Different assets have different modalities of delivery in an LMS. Videos can be used both synchronously, asynchronously and therefore they are recommendable for any organization. Videos can be used synchronously in form of live videos and asynchronously as recorded forms. This flexibility is very important to an organization. E-assessments are asynchronous. They are important tools that can allow for automatic evaluation with automated marking schemes that can save an organization a lot of time and resources. Webinars are also function asynchronously. An organization can call for an online seminar that allows the person who has something to teach to present it to a large number of people. This saves the people the trouble of being physically present in seminar as well as the costs for availing themselves.

The five curriculum objectives that support the learning assets in LMS include facilitate critical thinking and solving problems. Videos are useful for this. Audio-visual clues are excellent in making students acquire skills that are transferable such as critical thinking and skills in problem solving. Another is assisting in mastery learning. This requires a video or a webinar which are, available in LMS. Podcasts are also great tools for achieving this. The third curriculum objective is to engage with students and videos and webinars allow for engagements. In a webinar, an instructor can respond to questions from students. Also, you will want to inspire students and webinars provide a replica of face-to-face instructing. And the fifth curriculum objective is to test and this curriculum requires that there should be assessments and this is where e-assessments can be used. E-assessments can be used in this endeavour.

The key stakeholders that are responsible for managing the assets are LMS content owners, LMS administrators and LMS tech staff are key stakeholders in management of an LMS (Foreman, 2015). Content owners manage the quality of their work as well as giving information to LMS administrators so that they can keep the systems being used up to date. The administrators are responsible for maintaining accurate and thorough content in an LMS. Technical support staffs are responsible for keeping the system running.

The assets allow one to achieve the content goals. Some information can only be conveyed through these means in LMS systems if it is to get into students in an efficient way. The assets also allow achieve in for non-content by enhancing research. The assets lastly allow for achievement of the understanding of the course goal.

References

 Montrieux, Hannelore; Vanderlinde, Ruben; Schellens, Tammy; Marez, Lieven De (2015-12-07). “Teaching and Learning with Mobile Technology: A Qualitative Explorative Study about the Introduction of Tablet Devices in Secondary Education”

Foreman, S. (2015). LMS Operation and Governance: Taming the Beast. Learning Solution .

Vayuvegula, A. (2016). How to Use an E-learning Company to Develop Training Assets. Comm Lab India .

 

DISCUSSION COMMENTS

PLEASE COMMENT ON THE TWO POST BELOW JERRY’S & KRYSTAL’S

You can ask technical questions or respond generally to the overall experience. Be objective, clear, and concise. Always use constructive language, even in criticism, to work toward the goal of positive progress.

Jerry Flowers Jr Posted

In the discussion we are to identify three possible topics, then review the topics and list or establish their existing problems, and lastly create a few research questions in hopes to tag along with the topic chosen.

Therefore, leading into this module the assignments all point back to are you a leader or a follower? This is a very well stated question due to it will allow one to answer it within, but there are few people out there who will think they are a leader but are clearly a follower.

For example, in the DOE there is the teacher, then they have a Department Chair, then the Administration who will then answer to the Principal. Well in there we missed a few more entities who make up the whole school, now in the DOE it is hard to be the leader but there are teachers who are known as the “Bull”, “Golden Teacher” these are usually the teachers with years under their belt what they say can go, well in all it still comes down to the Principals decision.

Another Example, the Dealership world, yes it looks all green and rich from the outside, however, there is clearly a leader and follower role, but what other people don’t know is this are people who are natural made leaders, and its ok to be a follower as this will allow you to get more experience, but the leader will have to make sure the followers are ok, when I was a manager in the dealership world, I was more concern that the 25 salesmen and women were feeding their families, as if they are happy I’ll be happy, the leadership role a manager takes is a lot and comes with a cost, as an internet manager we all know the internet never sleeps, well neither did I, if I slept mouth were not getting fed. I oversaw the families of 25 traveling sales personnel women and men, as then 215 in the 17 dealerships, so it was a large task, they would get fed their leads from my office, so if they fail, I failed.

The problems in the leadership role are not always visible, a leader who runs with heart always will have it sheltered, as to a leader who runs with an iron clad, they will leader with force, either one will get take advantage of, it is okay to fail. As for the follower well, he/she will go and do what is told to do so the blame will not come to the follower it will be on the leader and for the most the manager will be the blame as to the instructions that were given.

Topic Questions?

As a Leader, in this role what are required and or expected, and what does it take to be successful?

In your organization or company working for, is their changes taking place? If so, explain, and what is your role in these changes?

In this world today everyone thinks they are a leader, what does or how does one tell if the leader is a leader or a follower?

Krystal McCain posted

 

“To be effective in facilitating change, strong and capable leaders are needed. Effective leaders are individuals who understand their organization, including the capabilities of their teams. An understanding of the workforce and of what’s needed during times of change” (Argosy, 2018) will help guide an organization to achieving transformation and effective change success.

Research topic #1: Change in organizational management affecting environmental stability

“As pressures of globalization propel companies to innovate in a global multicultural context, it is increasingly important to cultivate a culturally diverse workplace to enhance employee creativity” (Chua, 2013). As organizational change is constant, how can a company ensure that they are providing a safe environment that allows cultural diversity? This question might prove to be difficult as providing a safe environment could differ between different stakeholders as well as measuring the acceptance of cultural diversity.  There should be ethical and legal guidelines to help ensure that a safe environment is being provided and that cultural diversity is being accepted rather than frowned upon.

Research topic #2: The influence of social and emotional intelligence

As organizations undergo various changes, would it be beneficial for an organization to possess a leader that has skills sets coinciding with emotional intelligence or social intelligence?  “The domain of social intelligence relates to center genres of emotional intelligence i.e. self-aware, humanistic, sociable and self-satisfying and thus necessitate emphasizing these genres in the fields which involve human interaction” (Khodadady, & Hezareh, 2016).   Social and emotional intelligence can be subjective skills sets. A researcher has to have a baseline measurement in order to decipher the skill sets of both the social and emotional intelligence of leaders within their organizations.

Research topic #3 Change and how it affects virtual teams

In today’s society, technology has grabbed a foot hold in organizations. Some organizations have incorporated virtual teams because of the benefits that technology offers.  Would it be increasingly more difficult for leaders to deal with change while managing a virtual team? “Virtual teams can be very complex organizational structures integrating psych-social variables, cultural diversity, economic and financial factors, and management processes. Furthermore, the complexity of the team increases with greater geographic dispersion, fewer face-to-face  meetings, and greater dependence on computer mediation” (Wakefield, Leidner, & Garrison, 2008).  Although virtual teams are becoming more and more popular, leaders are having to acclimate to this different environment. Obtaining the skill set to manage virtual teams is important and will prove to be an asset to an organization.

The class will be discussing “Delta Airlines

the class will be discussing “Delta Airlines: The Latin American Contact Center Decision.” It is quite possible that the material that we develop as a group will become the basis for our final exam which will be held in class on December 6th.

In order to insure that all students are prepared and that our discussions are vigorous, I am assigning some written preparation for you to bring to class. This will be collected on the first day of discussion, and will be graded. Please prepare typewritten answers to the following questions.

Questions to answer:

1. Summarize this case in five sentences.

2. Why does Delta want to consolidate its Latin American reservations offices?

3. What does Delta need in a location for its Latin American Contact Center?

4. What are the pros/cons of Mexico? Of Argentina? Of Chile?

5. If you were the project manager, which country would you recommend? Why?

6. What overall business lessons can be learned from this case?

Please be sure that your answers are justified by solid consideration of the case material. Please do not wander outside of the material, nor assume facts not included. Outlining your answers on a single sheet of paper is perfectly acceptable. Brevity, as always, is encouraged, but not at the expense of thoroughness. I am available by email if you find yourself ‘stuck’ on any of these issues. As usual in case discussions, there are no ‘right’ answers or ‘wrong’ ones. What matters here is YOUR answer, and the consequences we’d face if that answer became a decision.

Please feel free to study collaboratively with your classmates, but your written submission must be your work alone.

It is necessary for you to bring your CoursePack, notes, and a calculator to these discussions. I will be grading your participation in class.

Good luck!

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Your Community Context of Practice Scoring Guide

Due Date: Unit 2 Percentage of Course Grade: 15%.

Your Community Context of Practice Scoring Guide

Criteria Non-performance Basic Proficient Distinguished
Analyze demographic changes in a selected community. 20% Presents minimal to no demographic information. Presents current demographic information in a selected community, but does not describe changes. Analyzes demographic changes in a selected community. Provides an analysis of demographic changes that highlight historical trends, and supports the analysis with reputable sources.
Assess historical issues that impact community relations currently and in future planning. 20% Presents minimal to no information on historical issues that impact current community relations and in future planning. Presents historical issues, but does not link them with an impact on current community relations or in future planning. Assesses historical issues that impact community relations currently and in future planning. Provides a rationale or utilizes theory to support the assessment of historical issues’ impact on current community relations and in future planning.
Critique the utility of existing community Web sites in meeting the information needs of stakeholders. 20% Presents minimal or no information about the existing community Web sites. Discusses information about the existing community Web sites without assessing their utility in meeting information needs of stakeholders. Critiques the utility of existing community Web sites in meeting the information needs of stakeholders. Offers recommendations based upon the critique of existing community Web sites in meeting the stakeholders’ information needs.
Propose improvements in communication or information available through community Web sites. 20% Presents no proposed improvements in communication or information available through community Web sites. Discusses the need for improvements to the community’s existing Web sites without specifying type, such as media or information. Proposes improvements in communication or information available through community Web sites. Provides rationale and reputable sources to support the need for proposed improvements or information available through community Web sites.
Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others consistent with expectations for members of the human services profession. 20% Does not communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others consistent with expectations for members of the human services profession. Inconsistently communicates in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others. Falls short of meeting the expectations for members of the human services profession. Communicates in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others consistent with expectations for members of the human services profession. Clearly, consistently and concisely communicates in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others consistent with expectations for members of the human services profession.

Job Application Letter

Your works in Art major:

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Final Project. BISIA 240 Creativity: Paint and Mixed media. Fall 2017.

In this artwork, Vancie’s portrait uses acrylic and regular gel gloss to capture and express the emotions and expressions of human moments. She draws inspiration from the creation of art in expressing emotions through human portraiture in ways that provoke the thought and emotions of different individuals. By exploring happiness, helpless and despair, her work uses bright colors and dark shadows with intention of drawing in viewers as witnesses while creating associations of thoughts and emotions. Her audiences can easily relate to the paintings since the same emotions are felt among people on a daily basis. Moreover, the brightly painted portraits provoke the feelings of the audience as well as feel attractive to the eye leading to a powerful connection.

I chose this work because it is a good example of my ability to express my ideas well through my painting skills in a clear way. I use painting to discuss the topic, not a paper, because I think I will reach more audiences in this art ear. This is exactly what I want to get to know more super powered people who like drawing as much as I do.

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Project 1. BISIA 340: Visual Art Workshop: Hybrid Art. Winter 2018.

In this artwork, Vancie well uses collage and acrylic combined with real bird feathers in order to reflect a vivid canvas board, shows how the animals are influenced by ocean pollution. And indirectly, she shows the severity of the impact of pollution on human health and resources. Her work uses a seagull who ate too much marine garbage and eventually caused died to explore how Marine pollution is a problem that directly affects the balance of Marine life and nature; finds out the animal were just the latest of a mounting tally of victims claimed by plastic and trash pollution of the ocean.

I chose this work because it highlights my social value. I can through my art to remind people to protect the marine environment, and revert a home for marine animals to live on. Make use of art, I will reminding people to always understand that littering conduct is harmful and people should always look out for ethical acts among themself when going to beach and taking a boat trip.

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Final Project. BISIA 340: Visual Art Workshop: Hybrid Art. Winter 2018.

In this work, Vancie studies special groups of people in China engaged in state performances and state protection. She Interviews and learns about their daily lives and dedication. Her work brings two kinds of people who sacrifice for Chinese national treasures. One is national Beijing opera actress and the other is national panda keeper, both special people who can’t go home for the holidays and stick to their jobs. Her work uses 2D acrylic paint and 3D paper machine mask shows how they are ordinary but quietly devote. She also shows their super bitter mind and speaks for them in an artistic way helps them to be concerned and respected.

I chose this work because it well demonstrates that I have the strong ability to publicize the profound Chinese culture through my works of art, also proves that I have the ability to use my skills learned from class to help those special people get attention and lead society to thank those strange people who have made contributions to the majority.

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Portfolio of Interventions. BISIA 319: Interdisciplinary Arts. Spring 2018

In this work of photography combined with painting, Vancie expresses that every object in life can be a work of art. Using a lamp and a transparent balloon to get involved in a painting, she creates a three-dimensional layer over a two-dimensional painting. The hole in the photo is actually the reflection of the lamp on the balloon. And some mirror reflections of her holding the phone. By intervening, all creatures appear to be trapped in a spherical prison. The two symmetrical holes are like doors, visible but never able to get out. Her works reflect a creature’s grief, imprisonment, as well as her helplessness trapped by troubles in real life. Her work tells that art needs to be analyzed with an eye toward how it helps us share, interact, and participate with one another.

I chose this work because it successfully confirms my ability to combine art and technology. I firmly believe that I am an artist who can turn everything in life into art.

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Final Project. BIS 440 Advanced Visual and Media Workshop: Studio Art in Rome When In Rome: Interdisciplinary Studio Art & Italian Culture, Summer A Term, 2018.

In this work, Vancie demonstrates a combination of reality and surrealism by using Photoshop techniques. She uses images to remember things, good or bad, which are all precious experiences. Visiting Italian buildings such as churches, Colosseum and museums inspires her work. Her work uses photo conversion and mixed media to combine herself with ghosts. Using Photoshop techniques to creates a dark, surrealist still image: a god of death drives a yellow taxi, the numerous bats flying out of his mouth grab hotel guests and swallow them into his stomach.

I chose to use this piece for my portfolio because it highlights my imagination,

As an artist, imagination is an important element. It gives me an advantage in my job because graphic design is exactly what I want to do in the future; imagination can help me to design satisfactory logos and posters.

Writing from Sources, Writing from Sentences

If you haven’t already done so, using the “QuizIIDataset.csv” data file,  create a variable called lnPPSF which is the log of the sale_price divided by the gross_square feet variable. Also if you haven’t already done so, create a new variable that is distance of each property to the Empire State Building in miles using the following formula: DistESB=sqrt((69.1691 *( latitude-40.748441))^2+ (52.5179*( longitude- -73.985664))^2), where the given lat/long coordinates are for the Empire State Building. Next, run a regression of lnPPSF on year_built, year, land_square_feet, gross_square_feet, and DistESB. You must use the robust standard errors, which corrects your standard errors for heteroskedasticity.

The coefficient estimate for gross_square_feet is about 6.7 times greater than the standard error (in absolute value).
The coefficient estimate for gross_square_feet is small, therefore, we conclude it has no effect on housing prices.
We cannot reject the null hypothesis that gross_square_feet does not affect housing prices.
The coefficient estimate for gross_square_feet is about 6.3 times greater than the standard error (in absolute value).

On Stata printout, the standard errors (Std. Error) column tells you which of the following:

1. The estimated standard deviations of the population coefficients.
2. The estimated standard deviation of the residuals.
3. The estimated probability that we can just reject the null hypothesis for each coefficient.
4. The estimated standard deviations for the estimated coefficients.

The following table is a regression of the price of a house (in thousands of dollars) on the number of bedrooms, the size of the lot (in square feet) and the square feet of house itself.

Dependent Variable: PRICE
Method: Least Squares
Included observations: 88
Variable Coefficient Std. Error t-Statistic Prob.
C -21.77031 29.47504 -0.738601 0.4622
BEDROOMS 13.85252 9.010145 1.537436 0.1279
LOTSIZE 0.002068 0.000642 3.220096 0.0018
SQRFT 0.122778 0.013237 9.275093 0.0000
R-squared 0.672362     Mean dependent var 293.5460
Adjusted R-squared 0.660661     S.D. dependent var 102.7134
S.E. of regression 59.83348     Akaike info criterion 11.06540
Sum squared resid 300723.8     Schwarz criterion 11.17800

Based on the above regression, which of the following is true?

1. The level of significance for which we can just reject the null that the # of bedrooms has no effect on the price is 0.1279.
2. We can reject the null hypothesis that the number of bedrooms does not affect the price with 99% confidence.
3. The number of bedrooms definitely determines the price of the house.
4. We reject the null hypothesis of a zero coefficient on the bedroom variable with a 10% level of significance.

For this question, you need figure out how to merge the “QuizIIDatasetSandyAddon.csv” data set with the “QuizIIDataset.csv” data file (hint use nycid as the key and merge one to one). After you merge the two data sets (if you haven’t done it already) create a new variable called lnPPSF which is the log sale_price divided by the gross_square_feet. Then run a regression lnPPSF on the year_built, year, land_square_feet gross_square_feet, and surgeheight, where the surgeheight variable tells you how many feet the Sandy storm surge rose at each house in the sample. After you run the regression answer the following question.

Based on the regression, we can conclude which of the following:

A 10% rise in the storm surge led to about a 2.4% rise in housing prices all else equal.
A one foot rise in the storm surge led to about a 2.4% drop in housing prices, all else equal.
The storm surge had no statistically significant effect on housing prices.
None of the above.

In Stata, import the “QuizIIDataset.csv” data file. Create a new variable called lnPPSF, which is equal to the log of the sale_price divided by the gross_square_feet. Then run a regression of lnPPSF on year_built, year, land_square_feet, and gross_square_feet. The year variable is year the sale took place; the year_built is the year the house was constructed.

Based on the Stata print out, which of the following is true:

1. On average, prices increased about 13% each year.
2. On average, prices increased about $13,000 each year.
3. We can not reject the null hypothesis of a no price increase over the period.
4. According to the regression, prices fell during the period.

The following table is a regression of the price of a house (in thousands of dollars) on the number of bedrooms, the size of the lot (in square feet) and the square feet of house itself.

Dependent Variable: PRICE
Method: Least Squares
Included observations: 88
Variable Coefficient Std. Error t-Statistic Prob.
C -21.77031 29.47504 -0.738601 0.4622
BEDROOMS 13.85252 9.010145 1.537436 0.1279
LOTSIZE 0.002068 0.000642 3.220096 0.0018
SQRFT 0.122778 0.013237 9.275093 0.0000
R-squared 0.672362     Mean dependent var 293.5460
Adjusted R-squared 0.660661     S.D. dependent var 102.7134
S.E. of regression 59.83348     Akaike info criterion 11.06540
Sum squared resid 300723.8     Schwarz criterion 11.17800

How do we interpret the coefficient for BEDROOMS?

1. For each additional bedroom, the housing price goes up by $13.85.
2. For each additional bedroom, the housing price goes up by 13.85%
3. For each additional bedroom, housing price goes up by $13,852.
4. None of the above.

If you haven’t already done so, using the “QuizIIDataset.csv” data file,  create a variable called lnPPSF which is the log of the sale_price divided by the gross_square feet variable. Also if you haven’t already done so, create a new variable that is distance of each property to the Empire State Building in miles using the following formula: DistESB=sqrt((69.1691 *( latitude-40.748441))^2+ (52.5179*( longitude- -73.985664))^2) , where the given lat/long coordinates are for the Empire State Building. After you do that, answer the following question. Run a regression of lnPPSF on year_built, year, land_square_feet, gross_square_feet, and DistESB, and answer the following question.

According the Stata printout:

1. There is no effect of distance the Empire State Building on housing prices.
2. Each additional mile further away from the Empire State Building shows that housing prices increase, on average, by about 4.4%.
3. Each additional mile away from the Empire State Building shows that housing prices decrease, on average, by about 4.4%.
4. Each additional mile away from the Empire State Building shows that housing prices decrease, on average, by about 0.044%.
5. Each additional mile away from the Empire State Building shows that housing prices decrease, on average, by about $0.044.

Using the “QuizIIDataset.csv” data file, if you haven’t already done so, create a variable called lnPPSF which is the log of the sale_price divided by the gross_square feet variable. Next create a new variable that is distance of each property to the Empire State Building in miles using the following formula: DistESB=sqrt((69.1691 *( latitude-40.748441))^2+ (52.5179*( longitude- -73.985664))^2), where the given lat/long coordinates are for the Empire State Building. After you do that, answer the following question.

What is the correlation coefficient between the lnPPSF and DistESB?

1.  -.0234751
2. 0.0778
3.   0.0010
4.  -0.0778
5. None of the above.

If you have not already done it, for this question, you need figure out how to merge the “QuizIIDatasetSandyAddon.csv” data set with the “QuizIIDataset.csv” data file (hint: use nycid as the key and merge one to one). After you merge the two data sets, (if you have not done so already) create a new variable called lnPPSF which is the log of sale_price divided by the gross_square_feet. Then run a regression lnPPSF on the year_built, year, land_square_feet, gross_square_feet, and surgeheight, where the surgeheight variable tells you how many feet the Sandy storm surge rose at each house in the sample.

After you run a regression, test to see if there is heteroskedasticity with regard to the residuals and then choose the correct answer below.

We cannot reject the null of no hesteroskedasticity.
We can reject the null hypothesis of no heteroskedasticity with greater than 99% confidence.
The evidence suggests that we need not concern ourselves with heteroskedasticity.
We can reject the null hypothesis of no heteroskedasticity with just 70% confidence.

Personal statement revisions

Jane Joe, MBA

Personal Statement

I thought out my life I have always been determined to achieve my goals. As early as the age of 6, I would keep a list of goals I wanted to accomplish as specifics ages. I was always told “the sky is the limit” but I wanted to test that theory. As I got older, the more I accomplish, the more people made me feel as though that was enough. After I finished UMUC with a double bachelor’s degree in HR & Business, everyone told me there was no need to get my MBA. I started to let those thoughts affected me. Then I remember “the sky is the limit”. The following semester I enrolled and did not look back. To be honest, I remembered thinking “I am not good enough or smart enough to continue. I believed I was just wasting my time. Class after classes, I received A’s and Bs’s I began to think differently. I am the first one in my family to receive my bachelor’s and now I am receiving my MBA. The day I crossed the stage and officially recced my MBA degree, was the happiest today of the life. As a mother to a 3-year-old girl, I want to teach her she be anything she wants to be. I want to be more than a mother who speaks words, I want to be a mother who leads by example.

Never in a million years did I think I would ever apply for my doctoral degree. I guess this the adult me telling the child me ”the sky is the limit”. I have so much to knowledge and experience to contribute to continued education. I am a US Army veteran who has sever 4 years on Active duty. While I was in the military I was got deployed to Afghanistan for 9 months, which was the most humbling experience. In the Army, my job was a Human Resources specialist, which taught me more about the business world and how this is the field for me. I have received many degrees, awards, and recognitions. I have served my country proudly, and I want to continue to serve my community. My ultimate goal is to become a professor and teach business to college students. I want to help students reach their full potential and teach them that “the sky is the limit”. I know this program will be challenging, trying, and difficult, but I am confident my determination and perseverance will lead to my success.

PROJECT 3 – Automated Testing I. Project Introduction

For this assignment, you will write (and test!) software for a game that plays Yahtzee, a 5-dice game. The rules to this game can be found in Appendix A, along with a score sheet of the paper version in Appendix B.

You are not expected to write an entire game for your assignment! Rather, you are to write the software which fills in a virtual, one-game, one-player scoresheet during a game, and which tracks a player’s score as the play progresses. However, you do not need to handle giving the user three dice rolls per turn.

This means, given: • The face values of five dice • The category that the user wants to use

the program will correctly calculate the proper score to be added into that place on the scoresheet. This means that, essentially, the expected output is the changes to the scoresheet.

For example, if the dice were 6-6-3-3-3, then that would score: • 9 in the 3s category • 12 in the 6s category • 21 in the 3-of-a-kind category • 25 in the Full House category • 21 in the Chance category • and a 0 in all the other categories

II. Important! You MUST complete the project using the following guidance:

1. In the spirit of TDD and the V-Model, you should write your requirements and test cases before proceeding to write your software. You need not adhere strictly to TDD guidance, but your code should be written using your test plan to help write the code. This will be done iteratively and incrementally, with small bits of functionality being added with each iteration.

2. Remember, the start of a good test plan is well-written requirements – particularly, requirements written at the right level of abstraction. “The program will implement scoring for a Yahtzee game” is not a requirement specific enough for writing test cases. Neither is “The program will score 30 points for a small straight. (Those may be good introductory or supplemental sentences in a requirements document, but they are not necessarily testable requirements in and of themselves.)

III. Test Cases and Automated Testing

A test case for this project might look something like this:

Test Case 1: Testing Full House 
 Input: 6-3-6-3-3, Full House Expected Output: 25 points scored in Full House category Actual Output: Pass/Fail: [ ] Pass [ ] Fail

However, this presents a challenge for Alice: Is Alice supposed to play the game over and over again until she happens to be lucky enough to roll a 6-3-6-3-3?

Also, as the number of test cases grows, it becomes more time-consuming to fully test the program with each new iteration. For this reason, you will utilize automated testing for this project.

Your automated tests will run your test cases on your code. Each test case requires the values of the five dice as input, plus a selection of where on the scorecard this should be played in the game. The input and expected output are both coded into the testing harness, and the harness software will monitor whether or not the code being tested returns the correct output, informing the user of the results of the tests using output from the test harness.

IV. Wikipedia excerpt (Test Harness):

In software testing, a test harness or automated test framework is a collection of software and test data configured to test a program unit by running it under varying conditions and monitoring its behavior and outputs. It has two main parts: the test execution engine and the test script repository.

Test harnesses allow for the automation of tests. They can call functions with supplied parameters and print out and compare the results to the desired value. The test harness is a hook to the developed code, which can be tested using an automation framework.

These individual objectives may be fulfilled by unit test framework tools, stubs or drivers.

A test harness may provide some of the following benefits: • Increased productivity due to automation of the testing process. • Increased probability that regression testing will occur. • Repeatability of subsequent test runs. • Offline testing (e.g. at times that the office is not staffed, like overnight). • Access to conditions and/or use cases that are otherwise difficult to simulate

V. In the end, your program structure should look like this:

The testing harness will run several test cases, feeding them one at a time into your Yahtzee software, comparing the actual result from your Yahtzee software with the expected result specified in the testing harness.

VI. Test Plan Guidance

Ultimately, your test plan should test each category enough times to increase confidence that your Yahtzee software is working correctly. You are encouraged to use techniques discussed in class to accomplish this.

Eventually, your test cases should be grouped into sets of 13, so that a full game can be played over the course of 13 turns. This will allow you to test the subtotals, the upper section bonus, and the total for the game, as well as each individual scoresheet entry.

I would expect your final automated test plan to play at least 3 (if not 4) complete games, in order to strategically test various combinations of possible results.

VII. Project Scope

To summarize, in this project, you are to:

• Write requirements for the Yahtzee scoresheet software • Write test cases to ensure all the requirements are correctly met • Write software that returns a correct score for each entry on a Yahtzee score sheet • Incorporate your test cases into an automated test plan • Write a testing harness to run the automated test plan against your Yahtzee software

Do not get sidetracked doing error testing, such as trying to pass six dice parameters instead of five, or passing a 7 as one of the 6-sided dice values. There is enough to do in this project without testing for erroneous input. Focus instead on being thorough with the goals specified in the project itself.

VIII. Your FINAL turn-in (i.e., the project) should be organized as follows (i.e., in this order):

1. Full project requirements (these can be assembled over time as you work on different phases of the project).

2. A full paper-based test plan (assembled, individual test cases), including space for pass/fail results, written out as though Alice were going to run this test plan.

3. Output from the complete automated test plan being run on the final version of the code. 4. (Optional but encouraged) A short write-up on your assumptions, rationale, and/or lessons

learned. 5. Code for the Test Harness software. 6. Code for the Yahtzee software.

IX. Project Schedule

The final project is due on the Monday before Thanksgiving. Each Wednesday in the interim, a partial version of the project is turned-in, graded as a HW assignment.

HW3A – Write the requirements and the test cases for the Top Section of the Yahtzee scoring sheet. No code is required for HW3A.

HW3B – Complete the Yahtzee game code for the requirements specified in HW3A. Write the requirements and test cases 3-of-a-kind, 4-of-a-kind, Chance, and Yahtzee categories.

HW3C – Complete the Yahtzee game code for the requirements specified in HW3B. Write the requirements and test cases for the Full House, Small and Large Straight, and the Yahtzee Bonuses.

HW3D – Complete the Yahtzee game code for the requirements specified in HW3C. Assemble all test cases into sets of 13 so that they can be run as a full game. Be sure to specify the expected values for the Upper Section (both pre- and post-bonus), the Lower Section, and the Total for each game.

HW3E – Write the testing harness. Ideally, your harness gets its input by reading each test case from a file, so that the test plan can be easily changed yet still be automated without recompiling the test harness. HW3E should include the output from one complete game (13 test cases).

Final Project – Automate the full test plan (three or four games total) developed in the previous HW assignments. Run this and print the results, and incorporate it into your final project as specified in Section VIII.

Appendix A – Yahtzee Rules Objective of the Game

The game consists of 13 rounds. In each round, a player rolls the dice and then scores the roll in one of 13 categories. Players must score once in each category – which means that a player may have to settle for scoring zero in some categories before the end of the game. The score is determined by a different rule for each category; see the section on Scoring below.

The object of the game is to maximize the player’s total score. The game ends once all 13 categories have been scored.

Rolling the Dice

The game uses five dice, all of which are rolled at the start of each round. After all five dice have been rerolled, you can either score the current roll, or re-roll any (or all) of the five dice.
 
 The dice can be rolled for a total of up to three times per round: the initial roll (in which all five dice are rolled), plus two re-rolls of any or all dice. (Note: You do NOT implement this functionality for your project.)

After the three rolls are complete, the player must score the roll, at which point the process is repeated beginning with another roll of all five dice. This continues until all 13 categories have been filled, at which time the game is over.

Scoring

Once the rolling for each round is complete, the roll is scored in one of 13 categories. The categories are divided into two regions: Upper Scores and Lower Scores. (These names are a holdover from the original version of the game, which was scored with paper sheets; see Appendix B.) Once a category has been scored, it is closed out for the rest of the game; it cannot be changed. Each category has unique scoring rules as described below.

Upper Scores

In the upper scores, you total only the specified die face. So, for example, if the end roll was:

4 – 4 – 3 – 4 – 6

then score for the 4’s category would be 12 (4 + 4 + 4). This same roll would yield zero points if you scored it in the 1’s, 2’s, or 5’s category, but it would score three points if it was scored it in the 3’s category, or six points if it was scored it in the 6’s category. 
 When the game is over, a score of 63 or more in the Upper Scores area (which happens to equal the sum if 3 die faces per category are scored) earns an upper bonus of 35 points.

Lower Scores

In the lower scores, you score either a set amount (defined by the category), or zero if you don’t satisfy the category requirements, as follows:

3-of-a-Kind & 4-of-a-Kind

For 3-of-a-Kind to score more than zero, there must be at least three of the same value on three dice. If so, the score is the sum total of all five die faces. 4-of-a-Kind, is scored the same way, except at least four of the five dice must have the same value. So, for example, if a player rolled:

4 – 4 – 3 – 4 – 6

the player would score 21 points in the 3-of-a-Kind category, but zero points in 4-of-a-Kind.

Full House

Much like in poker, a Full House is a roll with both 3-of-a-Kind, plus a pair. A full house always scores 25 points (if the dice indeed show a full house), or zero points. For example:

4 – 4 – 3 – 4 – 6 (zero points for full house) 4 – 4 – 3 – 4 – 3 (25 points for full house)

Small Straight & Large Straight

Also similar to poker, a straight is a sequence of consecutive die values. On the Yahtzee scorecard, a Small Straight is 4 consecutive values and scores 30 points; a Large Straight is 5 consecutive values and scores 40 points. For example:

4 – 4 – 3 – 4 – 6 (zero points for small straight and zero points for large straight) 4 – 4 – 3 – 5 – 6 (30 points for small straight and zero points for large straight) 2 – 4 – 3 – 5 – 6 (30 points for small straight and 40 points for large straight)

Chance 
 Chance is a catch-all roll. The point total is simply the total of all five dice values. 
 Yahtzee

A Yahtzee is a 5-of-a-Kind (i.e. all the die faces are the same), and it scores 50 points. If a player rolls more than one Yahtzee in a single game, a 100-point bonus will be earned for each additional Yahtzee roll, provided that the player has already scored a 50 in the Yahtzee category. If the Yahtzee category has not been scored, or has been scored with a zero, the 100-point bonus is not awarded.

Jokers

A 5-of-a-kind can also be used as a joker in the lower scores section, provided the following criteria are both satisfied:

1. The Yahtzee category has already been filled with a 0 or 50. 2. The corresponding category in the upper scores section has been filled.

For example, if you have rolled:

4 – 4 – 4 – 4 – 4 
 
 then the 4’s category and the Yahtzee category must be filled in order to use this roll as a joker.

A joker allows you to use the Yahtzee to get full credit in any lower scores category. For example:

4 – 4 – 4 – 4 – 4

could score 40 points in the Large Straight category, provided the aforementioned criteria are met.

Note: Joker functionality is NOT required if you are enrolled in 3110. However, if you are a graduate student taking 5110, you must incorporate the joker functionality into your program, and this functionality must be tested as part of your test script.

Appendix B – Yahtzee Score Sheet

Appendix C – Sample Work

Sample Requirement:

When scoring the 3-of-a-kind category, the program shall ensure at least three dice have the same value. If so, the program shall add all 5 dice and assign that sum as the score for 3-of-a-kind. If not, the program shall assign a zero for 3-of-a-kind.

Sample Preliminary Test Cases:

Check to ensure 3-of-a-Kind works properly in all the following scenarios:

Dice show 3-of-a-kind with 2 other numbers (e.g., 4-4-4-1-3; sum would be 4+4+4+1+3 = 16) 
 Dice show 4-of-a-kind with 1 other number (e.g., 4-4-4-4-3; sum would be 4+4+4+4+3 = 19) Dice show two pair but not 3-of-a-kind (e.g., 4-4-5-5-3; total pts awarded would be 0)

Sample Cases Written in Tabular Form:

Test Case Testing Dice Select Exp. Result Act. Result P/F 1a 3-of-a-kind 4-4-4-1-3 3-of-a-kind 16 1b 3-of-a-kind 4-4-3-4-4 3-of-a-kind 19 
 1c 3-of-a-kind 4-4-5-5-3 3-of-a-kind 0

Note: The three test cases shown above could be used in three different games in the automated test.

For this case, the automated test file could have a line of text that reads something like:

1A, 7, 4-4-4-1-3, 16

and the test harness might print out something like the following:

Now running test 1A…

Dice values are: 4 4 4 1 3 Player selects 3-of-a-kind

Sending input to Yahtzee program…

Result returned: 16 points Expected result: 16

Results match – test PASSES