Politics sciences

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China (Chapter 5: 258-299)

INTRODUCTION

C H I N A

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China

• Socialist/communist since mid 1900s

• Used severe methods to industrialize

– Great Leap Forward

• Moving towards market economy

• But retaining communist government

• Economy growing

• A third still live in poverty

Chinese Perspectives

• Continuous civilization for over 4,000 years

• View of china as the center of the civilized world

• Eastern vs. western bias

• Inward looking

• Closed society

• Political regional geography reveals

change, instability and

possible flashpoints

China’s Population

• 1.325 billion

• Annual natural increase 0.6% (1970s – 3%)

• Birth rate: 12; death rate: 7

• Life expectancy: 70 (males), 74 (females)

• Arithmetic density: 138 people/sq km

• Physiological density: 988 people/sq km

– Only 10% of the land is arable yet 69% of the population lives on this land

• Distribution: Western 2/3’s is sparsely populated, mostly with minority populations

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China’s Relative Location

• Isolation

– Natural protective barriers

– Distance

– Inward looking (central kingdom) with minor

incidences of cultural diffusion

– Effects of one ocean

• A history of emperors who restricted use of the

coastline, except in local circumstances

• Today the ocean is playing a major role in the

economic (and cultural) transformation of coastal

China.

Kongfuzi (Confucius)

• 551- 479 BC – China’s most influential

philosopher and teacher

• Confucianism:

• Focused on the suffering

• Emphasized that human virtues, rather than

godly connections, should determine a

person’s place in society and happiness

• Teachings have dominated Chinese life and

thought for more than 20 centuries

History:

Two Chinas

• After the Chinese Civil War of

1949, the Communists under

Chairman Mao Zedong had

created the People’s Republic

of China (PRC) on the

mainland.

• The Nationalists under

Chiang Kai-Shek had fled to

Taiwan (Formosa) and

established the non-

Communist Republic of China

(ROC).

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History: Communism &

Reform

• 1950’s- 1976 Communist regime

reform:

– Based on the Soviet socialist model

– Land was expropriated.

– Farming was collectivized.

– Industries were reorganized as state-owned communal enterprises.

– Emphasis on ‘heavy industry’

– Dramatic social changes- education, religion, population growth

– Estimates 20 -140 million died in Mao’s “reforms”

People’s Republic of China:

Mao’s Mass Murders

Source: R.J. Rummel

NIXON

GOES TO CHINA

• Nixon met with

Chairman Mao (1972).

• Results:

– The leaders discussed policy and philosophy, and made a favorable impression on each other.

– Immediately after the trip, Kissinger moved to establish regular contact with the PRC.

• Mao died in 1976

– However, formal diplomatic relations were not established until January 1, 1979, under the Carter administration.

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Economic Problems brought on by

Communism

• Problems stemmed from the state controlled

economy

• Serious energy shortage

• Transportation infrastructure poorly

developed

• Popular resistance and changes in central

policy have weakened China’s population

control program.

• Environmental degradation

Reforms

• Deng Xiaoping’s “reform and opening up”

since late 1970s

Deng Xiaoping Era

• Took power in 1979 as a ‘pragmatic moderate’

• Introduced economic liberalization measures

– create a ‘socialist market economy’ wedding communist political rule with capitalist economic practices

• Decentralized decision-making

• Shifted to the responsibility system in agriculture

• Created SEZ’s, open cities, and open coastal areas

• Opened China to foreign science and technology

• Permitted students to study abroad

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China today is

only a fraction of

the empire it

once controlled

A. WinklerPrins

Current Political Divisions

China’s Political Map

• Central-government-administered municipalities (shi’s): 4

– Beijing (capital); Tianjin (port city); Shanghai (largest city); Chongqing (interior river port)

• Autonomous regions: 5

– Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia); Ningxia Hui; Xinjiang Uygur (Chinese Turkestan); Guangxi Zhuang (South); Xizang (Tibet)

• Provinces: 22

– Grow in size from east to west

• Special Administrative Regions: 2

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China: Politics

• Socialist/communist since mid 1900s

• Used severe methods to industrialize

– Great Leap Forward

• Moving towards market economy

• But retaining communist government

• Economy growing

• A third still live in poverty

Political Culture

• Family ties are strong

• Consensus is important

• Gradualism & caution is applied to change

– Except under Mao

– Achieved many changes attempted in Russia

– China did not have such serious repercussions

• Dominance of state, party, & mass

cooperation

– At expense of individualism & competition

Political System

• Unitary state

• Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has all

the real power

• Difficult to determine who runs what

– Titles not always what they seem

– Personal ties and standings of key leaders

• Military has a role in civilian government

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Constitution

• Describes gov’t structure & policies of CCP  impressive list of the rights and duties of citizens, including:

 freedom of speech, the press, assembly, association, demonstration, and religion and the right to criticize any state organ or functionary.

• Article 51: personal rights may not infringe upon

state or society

• Article 54: prohibits acts “detrimental to the

security, honor and interests” of China.

• CCP constitution better reflection of gov’t

policies

Executive • State council

– Headed by Premier (head of gov’t)

– 2nd most powerful person

• Most powerful is head of CCP

• Current party chief is also

President

– Not always the case historically

Hu Jintao

since March 15, 2003

• 2012: The

man projected

to take over

as general

secretary of

the CCP and

as president

of China is

Xi Jinping.

POLITICAL SYSTEM

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Political Organizations • National People’s Congress

– In theory, makes laws & selects national leaders (rubber stamp)

• Judiciary – role is to enforce party & state policies

• Politburo – small subset of CCP

– Holds ultimate power

• Media – controlled by party

• Only local districts have direct elections

• Higher levels elected by lower levels

– theoretically

Delegates attend the opening of the National People’s Congress in the Great Hall of the People, Beijing, in March 2011. The sheer size of the Congress, coupled with its short meetings, means that it is able to achieve little beyond confirming policy decisions that have already been made by the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party.

Liao jiangheng/AP Photo

POLITICAL PARTIES

In China, there is only one significant political party— the Chinese Communist Party.

 It is the source of all meaningful political power.

 It controls all other political organizations, plays a key role in deciding the outcome of elections, and dominates both state and government.

ELECTIONS AND PARTIES

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FOREIGN POLICY

Nuclear power building up and modernizing both its short-range ballistic missiles and its long-range strategic missiles.

In recent years it has moved to strengthen ties with its Asian neighbors, continues to ensure the isolation of Taiwan, and works to adjust to the requirements of WTO membership.

Relations with the United States sometimes strained

but have generally been cordial.

POLICIES AND POLICYMAKING

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Taiwan Issue

• Former colony of Japan (1895-1945).

• Nationalists fled to Taiwan after the Civil War.

• 2 Views:

China: Taiwan is an inalienable part of the

territory.

Taiwan: The legitimate government of China.

• US supports “Two Chinas” or “Taiwan Independence.” – There is a fear in Taiwan that US is less capable or

interested in maintaining this status quo.

Other Issues

• South China Sea

– Philippines

– Vietnam

• Oil

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People’s Liberation Army

• World’s largest military: 375,520,255 people

• Includes all services & (MIL) party functions

• Used primarily for internal political control

• National leaders need support of military

• Recently gov’t has attempted to reduce political influence

• Tech Savvy: cyber warfare

Economics • State ended its monopoly on services

– Allowed creation of small businesses

– This lowered unemployment

• International trade & foreign investment

has jumped

• Income & consumption has increased

• Capitalism no longer officially condemned

• Worsening crime & corruption

Figure 7.1 Comparative Economic Growth

Sources: Figures for 2005–2006 from World Bank, and for 2007–2012

from The Economist. Figures for 2011–2012 are projections.

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Economic Initiatives

• Special Economic Zones (SEZ) – 7 SEZ’s established; 3 in Guangdong Province – Investment incentives: low taxes, import/export

regulations eased, land leases simplified, etc.

• Open cities – First 4 coastal cities, increased to 15 cities – National investment focused on Shanghai

• Open coastal areas – Also designed to attract foreign investments – Concentrated along pacific coast deltas and

peninsulas

Open Cities

• Size

• Overseas trading history

• Links to ‘overseas

Chinese’

• Levels of industrialization

• Pool of local talent and

labor

• Confined to coastal areas A. WinklerPrins

Qingdao – an ‘open city,’ sometimes

called ‘little Shanghai’

Pudong

A. WinklerPrins

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Economic Reform Measures

• Sequence

– agricultural production (late 1970s – )

– international trade and investment (1979 – )

– state-owned enterprises (early 1980s – )

– “socialist market economy” (1993 – )

– fiscal reforms (1994 – )

– privatization and private sector (1997 – )

– accession into the WTO (2001)

– Democracy Next? (20..?)

Democratization: economic

development and democracy • Modernization Theory

– Economic development either increases

chances for a transition to democracy. As

economic development progresses,

democratization will become inevitable.

• Role of the middle class

– Demands representation from elites

State & Middle Class

• Party-state remains central to China’s economic

development and to its emerging new middle

class

• Middle class of the reform era have emerged

from within the local “establishment”

• The new middle class are not alienated or

independent from the party-state

• They operate in close proximity and through

close cooperation with the party-state

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2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1989

1988

% a

m o

n g

p ri

va te

e n

tr e

p re

n e

u rs

30%

25%

20%

15%

10%

5%

0%

30

20

17 17

13

8

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CCP Members

Democratization

One-Child Policy

• Policy implemented in 1979

• Cultural preference for male children

• Severe gender imbalance

– 116 males born for every 100 females on average;

some provinces >125:100

• The One-Child Policy has disrupted natural

population growth

• Major implications for lack of women to marry

– Female kidnapping and smuggling

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Summary

• Becoming a major power

• Disparity between economic & political

system

• Increasing affluence of middle class

– Could challenge political system

– Greater moves toward democracy, or

– Return to managed economy

STUDY QUESTIONS

1. Is it still appropriate to think of China as a “communist” country?

2. The relationship between party and government in China has been described as one between a principal and an agent. To what extent can the same be said of the relationship between parties and government in liberal democracies?

3. Who governs China?

4. In what way have the changes made to the government of China produced more political stability?

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STUDY QUESTIONS (CONT’D)

5.How does leadership change in China, and how

does the process compare with changes of

leadership in liberal democracies?

6. Is it possible to have true democracy within a

single political party?

7.What differences are there between the

methods used by Chinese leaders to win control

and the methods used by politicians in liberal

democracies?

8. Is China a superpower?

China

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