Process: any part of an organization that takes inputs and transforms them into outputs
Cycle time: the average successive time between completions of successive units
Utilization: the ratio of the time that a resource is actually activated relative to the time that it is available for use
Process flowcharting: the use of a diagram to present the major elements of a process
The basic elements can include tasks or operations, flows of materials or customers, decision points, and storage areas or queues.
It is an ideal methodology by which to begin analyzing a process.
Process Flowchart Example (Slot Machine)
Types of Processes
Buffering, Blocking, and Starving
Buffer: a storage area between stages where the output of a stage is placed prior to being used in a downstream stage
Blocking: occurs when the activities in a stage must stop because there is no place to deposit the item
Starving: occurs when the activities in a stage must stop because there is no work
Bottleneck: stage that limits the capacity of the process
Multistage Process with Buffer
Other Types of Processes
Serial flow process: a single path for all stages of production
Parallel process: some of production has alternative paths where two or more machines are used to increase capacity
Logistics processes: the movement of things such as materials, people, or finished goods
Measuring Process Performance
Behavioral Considerations in Job Design
Specialization of labor
Made high-speed, low-cost production possible
Greatly enhanced standard of living
Adverse effects on workers
Making job more interesting to the worker
Horizontal enrichment: worker performs a greater number of variety of tasks
Vertical enrichment: worker is involved in planning, organizing, and inspecting work
Work Measurement and Standards
Work measurement is a process of analyzing jobs for the purpose of setting time standards.
Why use it?
Schedule work and allocate capacity
Motivate and measure work performance
Work Measurement Techniques
Predetermined motion-time data system
Process Flow Time Reductions
Perform activities in parallel.
Change the sequence of activities.