Your Paper’s title
Affiliation (this class and college in two separate lines)
RUNNING HEAD: SAMPLE PAPER FORMAT (notice this running head itself does not appear on the upper right hand side of this cover page)
Month and year submitted
Place (City and State)
You start your introduction here. This is your Page Two. The title page is Page One and the page number for Page One should not be shown. In addition, pay attention to the space here. Subheadings usually assume the form they are presented here. Your abstract is on a different sheet of paper and does not have to be part of the paper. Remember this is no longer a proposal. Change the wording and tenses.
This is where you review and summarize the related literature to build up towards your own study (Reed, 1996; Reinking & Bridwell-Bowles, 1991). Make sure that you know how to cite credible sources of literature (Stevens, 1990) and integrate them so that they become direct support for your own study (Just & Carpenter, 1987). An effective way to do an integrated literature review is to use a themed approach. In other words, avoid piece by piece literature review. If you notice you tend to have the tendency of reporting your literature review one by one, now is a good time to address it appropriately. Usually it is at the end of this section, you would have listed your research questions.
This section contains everything in the methodology we talked about in class. Make sure they are there. They may usually include most of the following elements: a description of the type of study such as a qualitative study (with quote to justify the design), research setting, subjects (or participants) and their sampling, study procedures (interventions including time lengths and intensity), instruments (such as questionnaire or tests or intervention materials), data collection, data coding (including reliability solution), and data analyses. It should be noted that the above list is neither inclusive nor is it exclusive. Depending on the type of research study you do, you may have other elements in the study that you need to report, or you may not need all of the above for your type of study.
This is the section you report the results of your analysis. Make sure that you are only presenting results here. Results refer to what comes from your analysis. For example, your data analysis shows that there is difference or no difference between the two groups of participants. Clearly report the results. Do not go over to the interpretation of it.
If you have tables or figures to enhance your presentation of results. Here is how you do it. You use the following line:
Please insert Table One about here
The real tables and figures will ONLY come up at the end of the paper just before the reference section.
Here you begin to interpret your results. You should base your interpretations of the results on the literature you have reviewed before. For example, you want to make sense here as to why the two groups did not show differences in their performance on certain outcome variables (such as vocabulary words).
You will conclude here, discuss the implications of your study, and point towards the future directions of similar lines of research. Don’t forget to point out the limitations of your study.
Analyses of Covariance for Literary Response Statements, Word Counts, and Sentence Counts in both Phase One and Phase Two with Training Period Data as the covariates
Phases Measures Grouping N M S.D. F
Literary Response Paper/pencil 20 7.16 2.42 2.65*
Email 20 8.21 2.87
Word Count Paper/pencil 20 65.90 19.66 7.88**
Email 20 89.44 34.21
Sentence Count Paper/pencil 20 4.73 1.31 7.02**
Email 20 6.19 2.00
Literary Response Paper/pencil 18 6.77 2.39 14.96**
Email 22 9.65 3.19
Word Count Paper/pencil 18 54.71 23.87 12.66**
Email 22 92.63 33.26
Sentence Count Paper/pencil 18 4.53 1.89 19.89**
Email 22 6.62 1.55
*: P=.08 (two tailed); P=.04 (one tailed)
Just, M. A., & Carpenter, P. A. (1987). The psychology of reading and language comprehension. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Reed, W. M., (1996). Assessing the impact of computer-based writing instruction. Journal of research on computing in education (28), 418-437. Available online
Date of access 11/19/02.
Reinking, D., & Bridwell-Bowles, L. (1991). Computers in reading and writing. In R. Barr, M.L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, & P. D. Pearson, (Eds.), Handbook of reading research, II, (pp. 310-340). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Stevens, J. P. (1990). Intermediate statistics: A modern approach. Hillsdale, NJ: LawrenceErlbaum Associates.