Table 1 A Comparison between Kouzes and Posner’s Five Exemplary Practices of Leadership and Senge’s Five Disciplines. Element (Common)

Kouzes & Posner (Practice)

Senge (Discipline)

Values/Actions Congruence

Model the Way: Clarify personal values Align Actions with values

Personal Mastery: Clarify personal vision Hold creative tension

Shared Vision Inspire A Shared Vision: Envision Future Enlist Others In common vision

Building Shared Vision: Unearthing shared pictures of the future Commitment not Compliance

Question the Status Quo

Challenge the Process: Search for Innovation and opportunities Experiment-take risks

Mental models: Surface internal assumptions be open to scrutiny Learningful conversations

Learning Together Through Collaboration

Enable Others to Act: Foster collaboration through trust & relationships Strengthen/empower others

Team Learning: Suspend assumptions and Enter into dialogue Thinking together and learning as a team

Integration of the Whole

Encourage the Heart: Creation of a culture of celebration through individual & group recognition Celebrate a Spirit of Community

Systems Thinking: Integrate all disciplines into a body of theory/practice Whole exceeds the sum of the parts

Source: Gregory, R. (2008). The Art of Collaborative Leadership: Practices & Disciplines.