Unidentified Condition: Adrenalin, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Hypertensive Retinopathy

2 days ago

https://herzing.blackboard.com/images/ci/ng/avatar_150.gifMarshayia Wade 

RE: Unit 7 Unidentified Condition: Adrenalin, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Hypertensive Retinopathy

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Catecholamines are released into the blood when a person is under physical or emotional stressed. The main catecholamine are dopamine, horepinephrine and epinephrine,which is use to be called adrenalin.The test is used to diagnose or rule out certain rare tumors like pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. High blood pressure can also cause hypertensive retinopathy. Having  high blood pressure can make the organ damage and affects the brain,kidney,and eyes.Hypertensive retinopathy is a retinal condition that occurs in accelerated hypertension and that is by arteriolar constriction flame sharped hemorrhages, cotten wood patches, progressive severity of star at the macula and papilledema. Over the four weeks diagnose im going to say the current week diagnose is going to be type 2.The symptoms are increased heart rate ,epinephrine, and hyptertensive. My last diagnose is most of all the symptoms that I wrote about over the last few weeks, they all matches up.

refrences:

www.mayoclinic.org/disease

www.reviewofoptometry.com

Sabrina Jackson-CunninghamBottom of Form

RE: Unit 7 Unidentified Condition: Adrenalin, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Hypertensive Retinopathy

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Adrenalin is described as increasing rates of blood circulation, breathing, and carbohydrate metabolism and preparing muscles for exertion. Systemic hypertension is high blood pressure in the systemic arteries. The systemic arteries are the vessels that carry blood from the heart to the body’s tissues. Having a high heart rate is known as tachycardia.

Throughout the differential diagnosis presented over the weeks I came up with different diagnosis pertaining to the current week’s symptom presentation. My final diagnosis will be cardiovascular disease. My current diagnosis did change from last week, but it was my diagnosis for the previous weeks. Having hypertension, high heart rate, and edema can lead to or be a result from cardiovascular disease. Also, the previous abnormalities presented in the previous weeks lead to cardiovascular disease such as elevated enzyme activity, increased cortisol, triglycerides, and muscle atrophy.

Hypertensive Retinopathy is when blood pressure is too high, the retina’s blood vessel walls may thicken, which may cause blood vessels to become narrow then restricts blood from reaching the retina. The retina then becomes swollen and the blood vessels become damaged and later causes vision problems. Prolonged high blood pressure is the main cause of hypertensive retinopathy. This is a chronic disease state.

Catecholamines are hormones produced by the adrenal glands. High resting heart rate, intermittent arrhythmia and high blood pressure are associated with the increased catecholamine production. The adrenals produce hormones that give the organs and tissues in the body instructions on how they should function. These hormones regulate bodily functions such as blood pressure, metabolism, heart rate, blood sugar, and immune response.

References:

HealthLine. Pheochromocytoma. Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health/pheochromocytoma#outlook

HealthLine. Making Sense of Hypertensive Retinopathy. Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health/hypertensive-retinopathy.

 

2 days ago

https://herzing.blackboard.com/images/ci/ng/avatar_150.gifVictoria Caraway 

RE: Unit 7 Unidentified Condition: Adrenalin, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Hypertensive Retinopathy

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As my previous weeks diagnosis’ I’m still going to say this weeks diagnosis is diabetes type 2. It shows signs of increased epinephrine, increased herat rate, hyprtension, and hypertensive retinopathy.

The “fight or flight” hormone that gives us a quick boost of extra energy to cope with danger — including the danger of low blood glucose. When blood glucose levels drop too low, the adrenal glands secrete epinephrine (also called adrenaline), causing the liver to convert stored glycogen to glucose and release it, raising blood glucose levels. Epinephrine also causes many of the symptoms associated with low blood glucose, including rapid heart rate, sweating, and shakiness. The epinephrine response spurs the liver to correct low blood glucose or at least raise blood glucose levels long enough for a person to consume carbohydrate.

High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a condition that’s seen in people with type 2 diabetes. It’s unknown why there’s such a significant relationship between the two diseases. High blood pressure(hypertension) can lead to many complications of diabetes, including diabetic eye disease and kidney disease, or make them worse. Most people with diabetes will eventually have high blood pressure, along with other heart and circulation problems.

Hypertensive retinopathy. Hypertensive retinopathy occurs in people who have high blood pressure. High blood pressure causes blood vessel abnormalities. Abnormalities may include thickening of the small arteries, blockages of retinal blood vessels and bleeding from them. Sudden, severe high blood pressure may cause swelling of the optic nerve.

https://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/retinopathy

3 days ago

https://herzing.blackboard.com/images/ci/ng/avatar_150.gifSavanah Ducharme 

RE: Unit 7 Unidentified Condition

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Catecholamines are a type of hormone that increases the heart rate, blood pressure, rate of breathing, and the amount of energy that is available to the body. A well-known catecholamine is adrenaline. The adrenal medulla releases extra adrenaline in response to stress. This causes the body to go into a fight or flight like reaction.

I believe that hypertensive retinopathy is associate with a chronic disease state. When a person has high blood pressure it causes the retina’s blood vessel walls to thicken. This in return causes the blood vessels to become narrow, which restricts the blood from reaching the retina. As time progresses, high blood pressure can cause damage to these blood vessels, limit the functions of the retina, and put pressure on the optic nerve. By having high blood pressure for an extended length of time it’s the main cause of HR. High blood pressure is considered a chronic problem.

My last and final diagnosis is that of which the patient has type 2 diabetes. Most of the symptoms that have been presented over the course of a few weeks match up to those of this disease verses any of the diagnoses that I had previously come up with.

References

Hypertensive Retinopathy: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health/hypertensive-retinopathy#diagnosis

Pheochromocytoma – Symptoms and causes. (2018, March 6). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pheochromocytoma/symptoms-causes/syc-20355367

Pheochromocytoma | Columbia University Department of Surgery. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://columbiasurgery.org/conditions-and-treatments/pheochromocytoma

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3 days ago

https://herzing.blackboard.com/images/ci/ng/avatar_150.gifJennifer Parker 

RE: Unit 7 Unidentified Condition: Adrenalin, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Hypertensive Retinopathy

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The adrenal medulla secretes catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine). The catecholamines help prepare the individual to deal with emergency situations. The major disorder of the adrenal medulla is pheochromocytoma, a neoplasm characterized by excessive catecholamine secretion.   Pheochromocytomas are tumors of the adrenal gland that produce excess adrenaline. Pheochromocytomas arise from the central portion of the adrenal gland, which is called the adrenal medulla. The adrenal medulla is responsible for the normal production of adrenaline, which our body requires to help maintain blood pressure and to help cope with stressful situations. A tumor that arises from the adrenal medulla and overproduces adrenaline can be a deadly tumor because of the severe elevation in blood pressure it causes.

Hypertension (HTN), or chronic abnormally high blood pressure, is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. It affects nearly 50 million Americans and two-thirds of the population above age 65.  The pathogenesis of HTN is complex. Genetic predisposition, excess salt intake and adrenergic tone all play key roles in the development of HTN. But, other factors, such as obesity and race, have also been shown to influence the development of the disease.   Hypertension is insidious among Americans and is a leading cause of annual morbidity and mortality associated with cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease. Persistent high blood pressure leads to organ damage and affects the brain, heart, kidneys and eyes.  Myriad ophthalmic vascular changes occur in response to both acute and chronic elevated blood pressure, and often affect the retina and choroid (see Ocular Manifestations of Hypertension). Because ophthalmic vascular changes may be warning signs of organ damage associated with HTN, optometrists play a critical role in diagnosing and comanaging hypertensive patients.

Your body produces a surge of hormones when you’re in a stressful situation. These hormones temporarily increase your blood pressure by causing your heart to beat faster and your blood vessels to narrow. There’s no proof that stress by itself causes long-term high blood pressure. I feel that stress played a huge role in all of the symptoms and diagnoses.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/stress-and-high-blood-pressure/art-20044190

https://www.reviewofoptometry.com/article/hypertension-more-than-meets-the-eye

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pheochromocytoma/symptoms-causes/syc-20355367

Vera Waters 

RE: Unit 7 Unidentified Condition: Adrenalin, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Hypertensive Retinopathy

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This week’s current symptoms of adrenaline: Increased epinephrine (catecholamine production) from the adrenal medulla. Heart Rate: Increased resting heart rate with intermittent bursts of arrhythmia. Blood Pressure: Systemic hypertension reported over the past 8 months,Hypertensive Retinopathy: arteriolar constriction, vascular wall changes, cotton-wool spots, yellow hard exudates, and optic disk edema.

 

 

The first question of if increased catecholamine production causes a high resting heart rate, high blood pressure, and arrhythmia. With the research I conducted it states that catecholamine hypertension is high blood pressure that is caused by catecholamine (epinephrine and norepinephrine. These symptoms are produced when the body is under stress. Adrenal tumors that secrete catecholamine can increase blood pressure as well as medication containing catecholamine. With this information, I would say “yes” catecholamine can be associated with the symptoms of high blood pressure, arrhythmia, and a high resting heart rate. The reasons being is that when the body goes through an ordeal like an intense workout a panic attack or an illness this increased symptom can occur causing a fast heart rate or high blood pressure.  The interesting fact about this symptom is that it can contribute to high blood pressure however it is stated that and recommended that with individuals with hypertension or prehypertension working out is essential in better control over hypertension and overall heart all heart health.

 

Would hypertensive retinopathy be associated with an acute or chronic disease? High blood pressure is a condition that will put an individual at risk for the development of some health disorders that can affect the organs of the body like the brain, heart, and kidneys. Hypertensive Retinopathy is developed due to having high blood pressure for long periods of time it damages the retina. This condition can also be acquired through other conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol, and smoking. This condition can be in the category of acute or chronic depending on the individual’s overall health. This condition can be a chronic condition due to diabetes. However, if the underlying condition that causes hypertension is controlled, then this symptom can fall into the acute category.

 

With the current symptoms, my final diagnosis of diabetes has not changed, and I will explain why. The first week’s symptoms of metabolic, hemostasis, triglycerides abnormalities were presented there was one symptom that stood out to me to determine my primary diagnosis of diabetes, and that was insulin resistance. When the pancreases stop producing insulin diabetes will develop. From week to week I wondered if my diagnosis made sense even though the symptoms changed every week there was always a symptom that leads me back to my primary diagnosis. Week two symptoms that further proved my diagnosis was increased production of reactive oxygen species(ROS). When researching this symptom and seeing the effects it has on the body and how it’s highly linked to diabetes due to the production of symptoms being in the kidney cortical in early diabetes. In week three symptom that helped further my diagnosis was increased cortisol. Researching this symptom and seeing how this plays a significant role in the development of diabetes due to the symptom releasing in the blood causing an urge for sugar which ultimately causes weight gain. The symptoms in week four did not really help my primary diagnosis. However, the conditions fibromyalgia has symptoms that are associated with diabetes like fatigue, and insomnia.  From my knowledge of diabetes when the body has massive amounts of sugar present if can cause fatigue

And insomnia. As I stated, week four did not present any symptoms that could be linked with my primary diagnosis of diabetes. Week five symptoms of memory loss and glutamate did not link any symptoms with my primary diagnosis either. However, cortisol does have some association with glutamate due to Glutamate being a powerful excitatory neurotransmitter that releases by the nerve cells in the brain. Diabetes is not really linked to memory loss, however its stated that in order for the brain to maintain normal function it needs a constant supple of glucose from the blood. Week six symptoms concluded my diagnosis of diabetes due to the symptoms presented. Hypertension can be an associated with an underlying condition, in this case, its diabetes, as I stated when diabetes is uncontrolled other issues like hypertension can occur due to high sugar levels causing hardening of the coronary arteries, this symptom is linked to week one symptoms of obesity as well. Hypertension can eventually lead to heart disease which would cause issues like a higher resting heart rate or abnormal heartbeat. Hypertensive retinopathy is a condition that causes damage to the eyes due to diabetes. Once again if the body has high sugar levels it will damage the small vessels in the retina causes vision problems a possibly permanent blindness. Statistics Say that individuals with uncontrolled diabetes will at some point develop heart disease, neuropathy, hypertensive retinopathy, insulin resistance, obesity, and kidney dysfunction. With the conclusion of my diagnosis diabetes is a dangerous condition to develop if not controlled.

 

References

https://visioneyeinstitute.com.au/eyematters/hypertensive-retinopathy/. (n.d.). Retrieved from   https://visioneyeinstitute.com.au/eyematters/hypertensive-retinopathy/.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/symptoms-causes/syc-20373410. (n.d.). Retrieved from   https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/symptoms-causes/syc-20373410.

Jovinelly, J. (2018, Febuary 18). https://www.healthline.com/health/type-2-diabetes/hypertension.   Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/.

 

4 days ago

https://herzing.blackboard.com/images/ci/ng/avatar_150.gifJuliane Carson 

RE: Unit 7 Unidentified Condition: Adrenalin, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Hypertensive Retinopathy

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The chromaffin cell produces Catecholamines in the adrenal medulla but also postganglionic fibers of the ANS. They are two catecholamines that act in the central nervous system as a neuromodulators. Norepinephrine and dopamine. As a stress responder they move through the blood and are hormones after minutes those are broken down.Increased levels of catecholamines can have as a result increased blood pressure, and elevated glucose levels, increase in heart rate. The intermittent (irregular) arrhythmia (heartbeat) are accosiated with elevated catecholamines. Hypertensive retinopathy. In the back of the eye is a tissue layer with the name retina. High blood pressure results in blood vessels thickens and this leads to narrowing inside of the blood vessel blood can not flow as fast and this can also lead to a blockage. Hypertension retinopathy is a result of high blood pressure, and high blood pressure can be an acute disease out the fact that high blood pressure can lead to a stroke, and that is a life or death situation. High blood pressure can also be chronic.Coronary artery disease the patient symptoms are abdominal obesity elevated ROS, liver enzymes, muscle density and bone loss, elevated levels of cortisol, and elevated levels of glutamate, the resting heart rate is higher then it should, the patient can experience mood changes, like insomnia, irritated, insulin resistance, high bloods pressure over a period can cause damages to the heart, but also fluid building up in arms and legs.Mayo clinic.org(n.d) disease conditions coronary artery disease symptoms cause r,retrieved August 18, 2018, from www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20350613Kobayashi K. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2001. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2001 Nov;6(1):115-21.retrieved August 19, 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11764279/

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2 days ago

Marshayia Wade

RE:

Unit

7

Unidentified

Condition:

Adrenalin,

Heart

Rate,

Blood

Pressure,

Hypertensive

Retinopathy

COLLAPSE

Catecholamines are released into the blood when a person is under physical or emotional stressed. The main

catecholamine are dopamine, horepinephrine and epinephrine,

which is use to be called adrenalin.The test is used to

diagnose or rule out certain rare tumors like pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. High blood pressure can also

cause hypertensive retinopathy. Having

high blood pressure can make the organ damage and

affects the

brain,kidney,and eyes.Hypertensive retinopathy is a retinal condition that occurs in accelerated hypertension and

that is by arteriolar constriction flame sharped hemorrhages, cotten wood patches, progressive severity of star at the

macula and

papilledema. Over the four weeks diagnose im going to say the current week diagnose is going to be

type 2.The symptoms are increased heart rate ,epinephrine, and hyptertensive. My last diagnose is most of all the

symptoms that I wrote about over the last

few weeks, they all matches up.

refrences:

www.mayoclinic.org/disease

www.reviewofoptometry.com

Sabrina Jackson

Cunningha

m

RE:

Unit

7

Unidentified

Condition:

Adrenalin,

Heart

Rate,

Blood

Pressure,

Hypertensive

Retinopathy

COLLAPSE

Adrenalin is described as

increasing rates of blood circulation, breathing, and carbohydrate metabolism and

preparing muscles for exertion. Systemic hypertension is high blood pressure in the systemic arteries. The systemic

arteries are the vessels that carry blood from the heart

to the body’s tissues. Having a high heart rate is known as

tachycardia.

Throughout the differential diagnosis presented over the weeks I came up with different diagnosis pertaining to the

current week’s symptom presentation. My final diagnosis will be car

diovascular disease. My current diagnosis did

change from last week, but it was my diagnosis for the previous weeks. Having hypertension, high heart rate, and

edema can lead to or be a result from cardiovascular disease. Also, the previous abnormalities pr

esented in the

previous weeks lead to cardiovascular disease such as elevated enzyme activity, increased cortisol, triglycerides, and

muscle atrophy.

Hypertensive Retinopathy is when blood pressure is too high, the retina’s blood vessel walls may thicken,

which

may cause blood vessels to become narrow then restricts blood from reaching the retina. The retina then becomes

swollen and the blood vessels become damaged and later causes vision problems. Prolonged high blood pressure is

the main cause of hyperten

sive retinopathy. This is a chronic disease state.